All authors made critical revision of the manuscript for importan

All authors made critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content.”
“Background Expression

profiling can be used for VS-4718 in vivo disease classification, predictions of clinical outcome or the molecular dissection of affected pathways in hereditary or acquired diseases. Animal models for human diseases facilitate cause-effect studies under controlled conditions and allow comparison with untreated or healthy individuals. Especially the latter can be an ethical or logistic problem in human medicine. More than 300 genetic human disorders are described in dogs http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​sites/​entrez. Many of these diseases occur in one or just a few of around 400 dog breeds. Single gene

diseases are easy to characterize in inbred dog populations, and research of complex diseases profits from the fact that dogs share the human environment. In addition to similarities between dogs and humans with respect to physiology, pathobiology, and treatment response, research of breed-related canine behaviour and phenotypic diversity is promising. Therefore dogs were advocated as a model animal in translational research [1]. Molecular genetic tools available for such comparable research between dogs and humans include the in-depth sequencing of the complete dog genome [2, 3], a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data base, containing 2.5 million SNPs [4], and easy access to genetic information of several generations of dogs. In addition, the high degree of inbreeding, this website which founded the present dog breeds the last few hundreds years, further facilitates the investigations in inheritable gene defects [5–7]. Dog specific micro-arrays are available to perform functional genomic studies. This kind of high-throughput gene expression profiling requires the use of high quality mRNA. Likewise is the quality of mRNA of major impact on the reliability of the results in quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR). So far the Loperamide emphasis in canine molecular biology was put on the use of internal controls for proper Q-PCR measurements and subsequent data analysis [8–10]. selleck kinase inhibitor However,

little information is available that compares different methods of retrieval, isolation and storage of canine tissues for molecular research purposes. Especially liver, but also heart and jejunum, are difficult tissues for retrieval of high quality mRNA [11]. Liver biopsies, taken for medical and research purposes, are processed for histopathology including immunohistochemistry and RNA and protein isolation. Since these diverse intentions require different fixation and storage methods, clinicians and researchers are often faced with a multitude of different vials, and fluids in order to retain biopsies. In addition, the applications of specific fixation protocols can be necessary, which might require additional training, time and sophisticated laboratory equipment.

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