The rescued rLCMV-LASVGP grew to titers comparable to that of LCM

The rescued rLCMV-LASVGP grew to titers comparable to that of LCMV and showed the receptor binding characteristics of LASV. We used rLCMV-LASVGP to characterize the cellular mechanisms of LASV entry in the context of a productive arenavirus infection. The kinetics of pH-dependent membrane fusion of rLCMV-LASVGP resembled those of the human-pathogenic New World arenavirus Junin find more virus (JUNV) and other enveloped viruses that use clathrin-mediated

endocytosis for entry. However, rLCMV-LASVGP entered cells predominantly via a clathrin-, caveolin-, and dynamin-independent endocytotic pathway similar to the one recently described for LCMV. Productive infection of rLCMV-LASVGP was only mildly affected by a dominant negative mutant of Rab5 and was independent of Rab7, suggesting an unusual mechanism of delivery selleck chemicals llc to endosomes. In addition, rLCMV-LASVGP infection was independent of actin but required intact microtubulles. Our data indicate that LASV enters cells via a pathway distinct from the one used by human-pathogenic New World arenaviruses.”
“Gammaherpesvirus 68 (gamma HV68, or MHV68) is a naturally occurring rodent pathogen that replicates to high titer in cell culture and is amenable to in vivo experimental evaluation of viral and host determinants of gammaherpesvirus disease. However, the inability of MHV68 to transform primary murine B cells in culture,

the absence of a robust cell culture latency system, and the paucity of MHV68-positive tumor cell lines have limited an understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which MHV68 modulates the host cell during latency and reactivation. To facilitate a more complete understanding of

viral and host determinants that regulate MHV68 latency and reactivation in B Olopatadine cells, we generated a recombinant MHV68 virus that encodes a hygromycin resistance protein fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein as a means to select cells in culture that harbor latent virus. We utilized this virus to infect the A20 murine mature B-cell line and evaluate reactivation competence following treatment with diverse stimuli to reveal viral gene expression, DNA replication, and production of progeny virions. Comparative analyses of parental and infected A20 cells indicated a correlation between infection and alterations in DNA damage signaling following etoposide treatment. The data described in this study highlight the potential utility of this new cell culture-based system to dissect molecular mechanisms that regulate MHV68 latency and reactivation, as well as having the potential of illuminating biochemical alterations that contribute to gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis. In addition, such cell lines may be of value in evaluating targeted therapies to gammaherpesvirus-related tumors.”
“The death of CD4(+) CCR5(+) T cells is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

Findings Over

Findings Over www.selleckchem.com/products/tpca-1.html 157912 person-years, 517 patients had a myocardial infarction. We found no associations between the rate of myocardial infarction and cumulative or recent use of zidovudine, stavudine, or lamivudine. By contrast, recent-but not cumulative use of abacavir or didanosine was associated with an increased rate of myocardial infarction (compared with those with no recent use of the drugs, relative rate 1.90, 95% CI 1.47-2.45 [p=0.0001] with abacavir and 1.49,1.14-1.95 [p=0.003] with didanosine); rates were not

significantly increased in those who stopped these drugs more than 6 months previously compared with those who had never received these drugs. After adjustment for predicted 10-year risk of coronary heart disease, recent use of both didanosine and abacavir remained associated with increased rates of myocardial infarction (1.49,1.14-1.95 [p=0.004] with didanosine; 1.89,1.47-2.45 [p=0.0001] with abacavir).

Interpretation There MK-1775 order exists an increased risk of myocardial infarction in patients exposed to abacavir and didanosine within the preceding 6 months. The excess risk does not seem to be explained by underlying established cardiovascular risk factors and was not present beyond 6 months after drug cessation.”
“Chromosome 1p13 is linked with schizophrenia in Japanese families, and one of the candidate genes in this region is the netrinG1 (NTNG1) gene at 1p13.3. Associations

of 56 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with schizophrenia were explored by transmission disequilibrium analysis in 160 Japanese trios and by case-control analysis in 2174 Japanese cases and 2054 Japanese controls. An association between SNP rs628117 and schizophrenia was identified by case-control Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor comparison (nominal allelic p = 0.0009; corrected p = 0.006). The associated polymorphism is located in intron 9 and in the haplotype block encompassing the alternatively spliced exons of the gene. Allelic association of a different SNP in the same haplotype block in Japanese

families was previously reported. These findings support that the NTNG1 gene is associated with schizophrenia in the Japanese. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Bankground in December, 2007, family cluster of two individuals infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus was identified in Jiangsu Province, China. Field and laboratory investigations were implemented immediately by public-health authorities.

Methods Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data were collected and analysed. Respiratory specimens from the patients were tested by reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and by viral culture for the presence of H5N1 virus. Contacts of cases were monitored for symptoms of illness for 10 days. Any contacts who became ill had respiratory specimens collected for H5N1 testing by RT PCR.

8; CI, 3 17-36 7; I(2) = 0%; eight studies); and nonsignificant i

8; CI, 3.17-36.7; I(2) = 0%; eight studies); and nonsignificant increase in the risk of spinal cord ischemia (OR 2.69; CI, 0.75-9.68; I(2) = 40%; eight studies) and anterior circulation stroke (OR 2.58; CI, 0.82-8-09; I(2) = 64%, 13 studies). There were no significant associations between LSA coverage Tanespimycin datasheet and death, myocardial

infarction, or transient ischemic attacks. The incidence of phrenic nerve injury as a complication of primary revascularization was 4.40% (CI, 1.60%-12.20%). Data on perioperative infection were sparse and rarely reported.

Conclusions. Very low quality evidence suggests that LSA coverage increases the risk of arm ischemia, vertebrobasilar ischemia, and possibly spinal cord ischemia and anterior circulation stroke. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:1159-69.)”
“BACKGROUND: Transarticular screw (TAS) fixation is our preferred method for stable internal fixation of the atlantoaxial joint because of its excellent outcomes, versatility, and cost-effectiveness.

OBJECTIVE:

In this article, we update our series of patients who have IACS-10759 ic50 undergone TAS fixation, with attention to surgical technique, planning, complication avoidance, and anatomic suitability.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 269 patients (150 women, 119 men; average age, 52.9 years; age range, 17-90 years) who underwent placement of at least 1 TAS. In total, 491 TASs were placed for stabilization necessitated by various pathologic conditions. The mean follow-up period was 15.7 months (range,

0-106 months).

RESULTS: Fusion was achieved in 99% of 198 patients monitored until fusion or nonunion requiring revision, or for 2 years. Forty-five patients had a complication, for a rate of 16.7%. Five early patients had vertebral artery injuries, 1 of which was bilateral and fatal. No recent patients had vertebral artery injuries. Other complications see more did not result in neurologic morbidity. Review of all atlantoaxial fusions by the senior author (R. I. A.) revealed that the TAS fixation technique could be successfully applied in 86.7% of sides considered. The main reasons for inapplicability were anatomic (recognized on preoperative planning) in 77% and abandonment secondary to concern about possible vertebral artery injury on the first side attempted in 13.8%.

CONCLUSION: The placement of TASs is safe and effective for stabilizing the atlantoaxial articulation. Refinements in technique, such as 3-dimensional stereotactic workstation for trajectory planning, have reduced the rate of serious complications. Clinical outcomes are excellent, with nearly 100% of patients achieving stable bony union.”
“We report the case of a 70-year-old male with a complication of misplacement of a vena cava filter into the spinal canal. This likely happened as a result of penetration of the wire and filter sheath through the iliac vein or vena cava into the retroperitoneum, vertebral foramina, and spinal canal at the level of L2 and L3.

Caffeine had a greater effect on mood and choice reaction time in

Caffeine had a greater effect on mood and choice reaction time in the abstained state than in the normal caffeinated state, but caffeine improved selective attention CX-6258 manufacturer and memory in both states.

Although improvements in mood and reaction time may best explained as relief from

withdrawal symptoms, other performance measures showed no evidence of withdrawal and were equally sensitive to an acute dose of caffeine in the normal caffeinated state.”
“The International Pharnnaco-EEG Society (IPEG) presents guidelines summarising the requirements for the recording and computerised evaluation of pharmaco-sleep data in man. Over the past years, technical and data-processing methods have advanced steadily, thus enhancing data quality selleck chemicals and expanding the palette of sleep assessment tools that can be used to investigate the activity of drugs on the central nervous system (CNS), determine the time course of effects and pharmacodynamic properties of novel therapeutics, hence enabling the study of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, and evaluate

the CNS penetration or toxicity of compounds. However, despite the presence of robust guidelines on the scoring of polysomnography recordings, a review of the literature reveals inconsistent aspects in the operating procedures from one study to another. While this fact does not invalidate results, the lack of standardisation constitutes a regrettable shortcoming, especially in the context of drug development programmes. The

present guidelines are intended to assist investigators, who are using pharmaco-sleep measures in clinical research, in an effort to provide clear and concise recommendations and thereby to standardise methodology and facilitate comparability of data across laboratories. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“As a tool for measuring the aging process, life span has been invaluable in dissecting the genes that modulate longevity. Studies over the past few decades have identified several hundred genes that can modify life span in model organisms such as yeast, worms, and flies. Yet, despite this vast amount of research, we still do not fully understand how the genes that affect life Capmatinib price span influence how an organism ages. How does modulation of the genes that affect life span contribute to the aging process? Does life-span extension result in extension of healthy aging? Here, we will focus primarily on the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans because members of this pathway have been shown to be associated with extended life span across phylogeny, from worms to humans. I discuss how this connects to the aging process, age-associated disease, and the potential to increase healthy aging in addition to lengthening life span.”
“Histamine H3 receptors (H3R) are presynaptic heteroreceptors that negatively modulate the release of histamine and other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine.

The red nucleus is bilaterally labeled

at the lateral rim

The red nucleus is bilaterally labeled

at the lateral rim with clear contralateral preference. Previously unreported labeling was found in the ventrolateral red nucleus. Single-step tracing confirmed this area receives projections from eyeblink-related portions of the anterior interpositus and sends projections to eyelid-controlling portions of the facial nucleus. In the deep cerebellar nuclei, blink-related neurons were labeled both in areas associated this website with blink conditioning and in areas associated with other blink modulation. Finally, novel maps of the cerebellar cortex revealed a characteristic spatiotemporal pattern of labeling. Posterior vermal Purkinje cells were labeled first, followed by anterior vermal cells, then by hemispheric cells. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“17 beta-Estradiol (E-2) is a key regulatory steroid hormone that is involved in the control of a number of developmental

and other functions. The aim of the present work was to identify estrogen-dependent proteomic changes by determining the levels of expressed proteins in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells following treatment with E-2. A number of methods exist for differential analysis of complex proteomic mixtures. Here, a label-free mass spectrometric approach comparing the ion intensities of tryptic peptides was adopted, which was combined

with prefractionation of whole cell lysate proteins by 1-D SDS-PAGE. Using Taselisib solubility dmso this approach, 60 proteins were found to be affected by E-2. These comprised 55 up-regulated and five down-regulated proteins. These proteins varied widely in their physiochemical properties with pIs of 4-12 and molecular weights of 9-500 kDa. Pathway analysis revealed that the majority of changes were related and together describe an up-regulated pathway consistent with the events of cell proliferation. The quantitative approach used here is relatively straightforward, 3-deazaneplanocin A avoids the use of costly labelling reagents, was reproducible within acceptable limits and has a linear response over a useful concentration range.”
“Vaccine-induced memory T cells localized at mucosal sites can provide rapid protection from viral infection. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to act physiologically to induce the expression of gut-homing receptors on lymphocytes. We tested whether the administration of exogenous ATRA during a systemic vaccination of mice could enhance the generation of mucosal CD8(+) T cell immunity, which might represent a strategy for establishing better protection from viral infection via mucosal routes. ATRA induced the expression of CCR9 and alpha 4 beta 7 on both mouse and human CD8(+) T cells activated in vitro.

Human alcoholics exhibit similar cognitive deficits suggesting th

Human alcoholics exhibit similar cognitive deficits suggesting that OFC neurons are susceptible to alcohol-induced dysfunction. A previous study from this laboratory examined OFC mediated cognitive behaviors in mice and showed

that behavioral flexibility during a reversal learning discrimination task was reduced in alcohol-dependent mice. Despite these intriguing findings, the actions of alcohol on OFC neuron function are unknown. To address this issue, slices containing the lateral OFC (lOFC) were prepared from adult C57BL/6J mice and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology was used to characterize the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on neuronal function. EtOH (66 mM) had no effect on AMPA-mediated EPSCs but decreased those mediated by NMDA receptors. EtOH (11-66 mM) also decreased learn more current-evoked spike firing and this was accompanied by a decrease in input resistance and a modest hyperpolarization. EtOH inhibition of spike firing was prevented by the GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin, but EtOH had no effect on evoked or spontaneous GABA IPSCs. EtOH increased the holding current of voltage-clamped neurons and this action was blocked by picrotoxin but not the more selective GABA(A) antagonist biccuculine. The glycine receptor antagonist

strychnine also prevented EtOH’s effect on holding current and spike firing, and western blotting revealed the presence of glycine receptors in lOFC. Overall, these results suggest that acutely, EtOH may reduce lOFC function via https://www.selleck.cn/products/RO4929097.html a glycine receptor AZD5363 chemical structure dependent process and this may trigger neuroadaptive mechanisms that contribute to the impairment of OFC-dependent behaviors in alcohol-dependent subjects.”
“This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes

an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicit implicit interaction theory relies mainly on 5 basic principles, namely, (a) the coexistence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, (b) the simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most tasks, (c) the redundant representation of explicit and implicit knowledge, (d) the integration of the results of explicit and implicit processing, and (e) the iterative (and possibly bidirectional) processing. A computational implementation of the theory is developed based on the CLARION cognitive architecture and applied to the simulation of relevant human data. This work represents an initial step in the development of process-based theories of creativity encompassing incubation, insight, and various other related phenomena.

Elective delivery was planned between 37 weeks 5 days and 38 week

Elective delivery was planned between 37 weeks 5 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation. The primary outcome was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity, with the fetus or infant as

the unit of analysis for the statistical comparison.

ResultsA total of 1398 women (2795 fetuses) were randomly assigned to planned cesarean check details delivery and 1406 women (2812 fetuses) to planned vaginal delivery. The rate of cesarean delivery was 90.7% in the planned-cesarean-delivery group and 43.8% in the planned-vaginal-delivery group. Women in the planned-cesarean-delivery group delivered earlier than did those in the planned-vaginal-delivery group (mean number of days from randomization to delivery, 12.4 vs. 13.3; P=0.04). There was no significant difference in the composite primary outcome between the planned-cesarean-delivery group and the planned-vaginal-delivery group (2.2% and 1.9%, respectively; odds ratio with planned cesarean delivery, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.74; P=0.49).

ConclusionsIn twin pregnancy between 32 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation, with the first twin in the cephalic presentation, planned cesarean delivery did not significantly decrease or increase the risk

of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity, as compared with planned vaginal delivery. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health click here Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00187369; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN74420086.)

In this randomized trial comparing delivery strategies in women with twin gestation,

planned cesarean Nutlin 3a section did not significantly increase or decrease the risk of fetal or neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity, as compared with planned vaginal delivery. Because of assisted reproductive technologies, twin pregnancy occurs more frequently now than in the past, and it complicates 2 to 3% of all births.(1),(2) Twins are at higher risk for an adverse perinatal outcome than singletons.(3),(4) Planned cesarean section, as compared with planned vaginal delivery, may reduce this risk.(5) Although a small, randomized, controlled trial did not show better perinatal outcomes with planned cesarean section than with planned vaginal delivery,(6) several cohort studies have shown a reduced risk of adverse perinatal outcomes for both twins, or for the second twin, when twins at or near term were delivered”
“Our previous study examined a number of methamphetamine (METH)/phencyclidine (PCP)-reactive tags in rat brain, using a serial analysis of gene expression.

Limitations: Different subjects were examined at different time p

Limitations: Different subjects were examined at different time points in our study. In addition, the sex and tobacco use distributions differed between groups.

Conclusion: The central dopaminergic system may play a role

in the neurobiological characteristics of sunshine-exposure variation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Spinal cord injury results froman insult inflicted on the spinal cord that usually encompasses its 4 major functions (motor, sensory, autonomic, and reflex). The type of deficits resulting from spinal cord injury arise from primary insult, but their long-term severity is due to a multitude of pathophysiological processes during the secondary phase of injury. The failure of the mammalian spinal cord to regenerate and repair is often attributed

ZD1839 molecular weight to the very feature that makes the central nervous system special-it becomes so highly specialized to perform higher functions that it cannot effectively reactivate developmental programs to re-build novel circuitry to restore function after injury. Added to this is an extensive gliotic and immune response that is essential for clearance of cellular debris, but also lays down many obstacles that are detrimental to regeneration. Here, we discuss how the mature chromatin state of different central nervous system cells (neural, glial, and immune) may contribute to secondary pathophysiology, and how restoring silenced developmental Temsirolimus find more gene expression by altering histone acetylation could stall secondary damage and contribute to novel approaches to stimulate endogenous repair.”
“Calorie restriction (CR) induces enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fast-twitch (type II) muscle from old rats, but the effect of CR on slow-twitch (type I) muscle from old rats is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins in isolated epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from 24-month-old ad libitum fed and CR (consuming 65% of ad libitum,

intake) rats. Muscles were incubated with and without 1.2 nM insulin. CR versus ad libitum rats had greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) on T308 and S473 for both muscles incubated with insulin. GLUT4 protein abundance and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Y1162/1163) and AS160 (T642) were unaltered by CR in both muscles. These results implicate enhanced pAkt as a potential mechanism for the CR-induced increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus of old rats.”
“Neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) is considered to be partly involved in the action of mood stabilizers. However, it remains unclear how mood stabilizers affect neural precursor cells in adult DG.

Its lower limit of detection was equal to 0 3 nM with a standard

Its lower limit of detection was equal to 0.3 nM with a standard spectrofluorometer. Titrations with potassium iodide indicated that the fluorescence variation was due to a shielding of the fluorescent group from the solvent by the antigen. These results suggest rules for the design of reagentless fluorescent biosensors from any DARPin.”
“Introduction: When-a radiopharmaceutical is simultaneously administered selleck kinase inhibitor with a medicine that has high affinity for the same plasma protein, the radiopharmaceutical is released

at higher concentrations in blood, leading to enhanced transfer into target tissues. This is known as the serum protein binding displacement method. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic alteration of technetium-99m-labeled mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (Tc-99m-MAG3) using the serum protein ICG-001 purchase binding displacement method.

Methods: Rat and human serum protein binding rates of Tc-99m-MAG3 were measured by ultrafiltration with or without displacers of human serum albumin (HSA) binding sites land II (200 mu M and 400 mu M loading). Male Wistar rats were injected with Tc-99m-MAG3 (740 kBq/0.3 mL saline) via the tail vein, and biodistribution was assessed at 2, 5, 10 and 15 min. Dynamic whole-body images were obtained for Tc-99m-MAG3 (11.1 MBq/0.3 mL saline)-injected rats, with or without HSA displacers.

Results:

Tc-99m-MAG3 strongly bound to HSA (87.37%+/- 2.13%). Using HSA site I displacers, the free fraction of Tc-99m-MAG3 increased significantly (1.20 to 1.47 times) when compared with controls. For biodistribution and VEGFR inhibitor imaging, rapid blood clearance was observed with bucolome (BCL) loading, which is an HSA site I displacer. With BCL loading, peak times for rat renograms were respectively shifted from 240 s to 110 s, and from 170 s to 120 s.

Conclusions: We found that Tc-99m-MAG3 bound to the HSA binding site I. It was confirmed that pharmacokinetic distribution of Tc-99m-MAG3 is altered by presence of BCL, which leads to increases in

the free fraction of Tc-99m-MAG3, and BCL produced rapid blood clearance and fast peak times on rat renograms. The serum protein binding displacement method using Tc-99m-MAG3 and BCL, a safe displacer for humans, may be applicable to clinical study and lead to better diagnostic images with shorter waiting times and lower radiation doses for patients. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Gain-of-function mutations in KIT receptor in humans are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, systemic mastocytosis and acute myelogenous leukemia. The intracellular signals that contribute to oncogenic KIT-induced myeloproliferative disease (MPD) are poorly understood. Here, we show that oncogenic KITD814V-induced MPD occurs in the absence of ligand stimulation.


“Neurological syndromes, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Park


“Neurological syndromes, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s buy Blasticidin S disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and lysosomal storage disorders, such as Battens disease, are devastating because they result in increasing loss of cognitive and physical function. Sadly, no drugs are currently available to halt their progression. The relative paucity of curative approaches for these and other conditions of the nervous system have led to a widespread evaluation of alternative treatment modalities including cell-based interventions. Several cell types have been tested successfully in animal models where safety and efficacy have been demonstrated. Early clinical trials

have also been initiated in humans, and some have shown a degree of success albeit on a more limited scale than

in animal experiments. Recent demonstrations that pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, can differentiate into a variety of specific neural phenotypes has stimulated worldwide enthusiasm for developing cell-based intervention of neurological disease. Indeed, several groups are preparing investigational new drug applications to NU7026 price treat disorders as diverse as macular degeneration, lysosomal storage diseases, and Parkinson’s disease. It is noteworthy that cell replacement therapies for neurological conditions face key challenges, some of which are unique, because of the development and organization of the nervous system, its metabolism, and connectivity. Choice of the cell (or cells), the process of manufacturing them, defining the delivery pathway, developing and testing in an appropriate preclinical model, selecting a patient population, and visualizing and following or monitoring patients all pose specific issues as related to the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this review, we address a myriad of challenges that are solvable, but require careful

planning and attention to the special demands of the human nervous system.”
“The emergence of zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections and the threat of possible Liproxstatin-1 in vitro intentional release of pathogenic orthopoxviruses have stimulated renewed interest in understanding orthopoxvirus infections and the resulting diseases. Ectromelia virus (ECTV), the causative agent of mousepox, offers an excellent model system to study an orthopoxvirus infection in its natural host. Here, we investigated the role of the vaccinia virus ortholog N1L in ECTV infection. Respiratory infection of mice with an N1L deletion mutant virus (ECTV Delta N1L) demonstrated profound attenuation of the mutant virus, confirming N1 as an orthopoxvirus virulence factor. Upon analysis of virus dissemination in vivo, we observed a striking deficiency of ECTV Delta N1L spreading from the lungs to the livers or spleens of infected mice.