She initially received a test injection with a temporary gel of s

She initially received a test injection with a temporary gel of synthetic polymers (Radiesse Voice Gel) with benefit lasting Selleck Pexidartinib several months; she subsequently underwent a longer term injection with the hydroxylapatite and tube removal. She had

complete resolution of otorrhea for 18 months with no subsequent ear infections or food matter in the ear despite persistent significant gastroesophageal reflux. The patulous eustachian tube is rarely identified in children and, when found, is a challenging condition to manage. Many current surgical treatments involve permanent occlusion of the eustachian tube. Our endoscopic transoral technique is a shorter-term alternative for management of complications related to this anatomic variation, and it allows time for eustachian tube growth. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Giant cell lesions of bone share similar clinical, radiological, and histological features. The most challenging

differential diagnosis is between giant cell tumor (GCT) and brown tumor (BT) secondary to hyperparathyroidism. Differential diagnosis is based on determining serum calcium concentration and other markers of calcium metabolism. The authors present the unusual Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor case of a 37-year-old Caucasian woman affected by a GCT of the proximal left tibia and concomitant asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a parathyroid adenoma.

The presence of two concurrent diseases complicated diagnosis and relative treatment. The patient was first treated for the adenoma, then after 9 months, she underwent curettage of tibial GCT. Denosumab treatment was administered for 12 months to control a relapse occurring at 15 PXD101 mouse months post-curettage. At 32-month follow-up from primary tibial surgery, the patient was free from tumor disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature reporting the concomitant presence of asymptomatic PHPT and GCT. The possibility of concomitant finding these two diseases has to be considered during the decision-making process.”
“Bats are being increasingly recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses of different families, including SARS coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and Ebola virus. Several recent studies hypothesized that bats, an ancient group of flying mammals, are the major reservoir of several important RNA virus families from which other mammalian viruses of livestock and humans were derived. Although this hypothesis needs further investigation, the premise that bats carry a large number of viruses is commonly accepted. The question of whether bats have unique biological features making them ideal reservoir hosts has been the subject of several recent reviews.

“A study of the conversion efficiency and line shape of th

“A study of the conversion efficiency and line shape of the K-alpha x-ray line radiation from a planar titanium target irradiated by an ultra-short laser pulse is performed. The conversion efficiency and spectral broadening are studied as a function of laser intensity (5 x 10(16)-10(18) W cm(-2)), laser pulse duration (45 fs-800 fs), and laser fluence (2 x 10(3)-4.2 x 10(4) J cm(-2)). The K-alpha(1) line (4510 eV) is observed to be broadened (up to similar to 9 eV), predominantly towards the higher energy side and strongly depends on the

laser fluence rather than on laser intensity. The reason for the spectral broadening is attributed to K-alpha emission in warm dense plasma. The role of

hot electrons and direct Selleck PLX4032 laser heating on spectral broadening is outlined. In addition to this, our observations indicates that the presence of pre-plasma strongly contribute to the observed broadening through the inner-shell transitions in multiply charged titanium ions in the pre-plasma. The appropriate laser irradiation parameters to achieve high conversion efficiency and minimum spectral width of the K-alpha radiation are identified. The study is important, since the control of the spectral profile is of general interest for diffraction or scattering experiments in view of its potential in increasing temporal resolution. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3651395]“
“Statewide respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection hospitalization data of Colorado Selleck ERK inhibitor children with congenital malformations was used to estimate the population-based risk and severity of disease of RSV hospitalizations. Spina bifida without anencephaly, cleft palate, lung agenesis or dysgenesis, and biliary atresia were associated with a higher risk of being PXD101 manufacturer hospitalized with RSV lower respiratory tract infection and an increased severity of disease when hospitalized.”
“The equations of

magneto-generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time with variable electrical and thermal conductivity for one-dimensional problems are cast into a matrix form using the statespace approach and Laplace transform techniques. The resulting formulation is applied to a problem of a half space where the bounded plane is subjected to a ramp-type heating and a traction free. This takes place when a constant magnetic field permeates the medium in the absence of an external electric field. The inversion of the Laplace transform is carried out using a numerical approach. Numerical results for the temperature, the displacement, and the stress distributions are given and illustrated graphically. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The curing characteristics, morphologies, mechanical properties,

The curing characteristics, morphologies, mechanical properties, and abrasion behaviors of these composites were investigated. The curing measurements indicated that the addition of lower loading of MS-III buy BGJ398 or MS-V enhanced the lubrication of EPDM compounds and delayed the curing process. The morphological structure of the composites demonstrated that the MS-III

and MS-V were uniformly dispersed in EPDM matrix and the efficient polymer-filler interfacial interactions were constructed. In comparison with EPDM/MS-II and EPDM/MS-III, EPDM/MS-V exhibited outstanding tensile strength, tear strength, elongation at break, and abrasion resistance due to the nanometer particle dimension and good dispersion of MS-V as well as the stronger interfacial

interactions between MS-V see more and the EPDM matrix. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3734-3740, 2012″
“Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of magnetic-annealed polycrystalline CoFe2O4 were investigated. The magnetic hysteresis loops showed obvious uniaxiality with an induced easy direction parallel to the annealing field. Magnetic force microscopy study revealed that the domains were fixed by magnetic annealing. The uniaxial behavior was also observed in the magnetostrictive measurement, which showed a significantly enhanced magnetostriction of – 273 PPM when the external field was applied perpendicular to the annealing field direction. A physical mechanism for the effect of magnetic annealing on polycrystalline CoFe2O4 is developed, in which the induced uniaxiality is ascribed to the realignment of easy axes in polycrystals. The uniaxial behavior of magnetism and enhanced magnetostriction could be well explained by this model. (C)

2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3624661]“
“The BEAUTIFUL (morBidity-mortality EvAlUaTion of the If inhibitor ivabradine in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricULar systolic dysfunction) study Selleckchem PP2 assessed the morbidity and mortality benefits of the HR-lowering agent ivabradine. The placebo arm of the BEAUTIFUL trial was a large cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. A subanalysis in the placebo group tested the hypothesis that elevated resting HR at baseline was a marker for subsequent cardiovascular death and morbidity. The primary aim of the study was to test whether lowering the HR with ivabradine reduced cardiovascular death and morbidity in patients with CAD and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In the overall analysis, reduction in HR with ivabradine did not improve cardiac outcomes compared with placebo. The most important finding of the study was that patients with high baseline HR had an increase in serious cardiovascular events including death (34%), hospital admission secondary to congestive heart failure (53%), acute myocardial infarction (46%), or revascularization procedure (38%).

05) Daily mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were greatest in

05). Daily mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were greatest in T1 and T3 (cubic P = 0.04). Ruminal pH showed a treatment effect at wk 1 because of increased values in T1 and T3 (cubic P = 0.01). Delaying feed delivery time was not detrimental for rumen function because a stress response was selleck chemicals llc triggered, which led to reduced concentrate intake, eating rate, and size of first meal, and increased straw intake. Increased salivary cortisol suggests that animal welfare is compromised.”
“Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for a wide diversity of infections ranging from localized to life threatening diseases. From 1961 and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), this bacterium

has shown a particular capacity to survive and adapt to drastic environmental changes and since the beginning of the 1990s it has spread worldwide. Until recently, S. aureus was considered as the prototype

of a nosocomial pathogen but it has now been recognized as an agent responsible for outbreaks in the community. Several recent reports suggest that the epidemiology of MRSA is changing. Understanding of pathogenicity, virulence and emergence of epidemic clones within MRSA populations is not clearly defined, despite several attempts to identify common molecular features between strains that share similar epidemiological and/or virulence behavior. These studies included: pattern profiling PXD101 of bacterial adhesins, analysis of clonal complex groups, molecular genotyping and enterotoxin content analysis. To date, all approaches failed to find a correlation between molecular determinants and clinical outcomes. We hypothesize that the capacity of the bacterium to become more invasive or virulent is determined by genetics. The utilization of massively parallel methods of analysis is therefore ideal to study the contribution of genetics. Therefore, this article focuses on the entire genome including coding sequences as SN-38 molecular weight well as noncoding sequences. This high resolution approach allows the monitoring micro- and macroevolution of MRSA and identification of specific genomic markers of evolution

of invasive or highly virulent phenotypes.”
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase is the key replicating protein of the virus and thus an attractive target for drug development. Here we report on the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of benzimidazole derivatives as HCV NS5B inhibitors. This yielded compound 6b and 6d bearing 2-(2-benzyloxy)phenyl and 2-(4-methylbenzyloxy)phenyl moieties, respectively, as promising leads. Binding mode of compound 6d in allosteric pocket (AP)-1 of NS5B will form the basis for future structure-activity relationship optimization.”
“Background: Pregnancy is associated with significant cardiac adaptations. The regulatory mechanisms involved in functional cardiac adaptations during pregnancy are still largely unknown.

The assay was also found to be sensitive with the lowest detectio

The assay was also found to be sensitive with the lowest detection limit of 1 ng of bacterial DNA. When applied to clinical isolates from diverse specimen sources, the multiplex PCR developed in this study correctly identified each microorganism individually or in a combination of two or more target organisms. All results matched with conventional culture identification. In addition, the ability of such assay to differentiate H. influenzae encapsulation from the

study clinical isolates was 100%.

Conclusion: Our multiplex PCR provides a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool for detection of the 4 target organisms. Such assay would serve as a useful tool for clinicians and epidemiologists in their efforts to the proper selleck chemicals treatment and disease management caused by these organisms. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: The paper reports an investigation into GS-9973 the possibility of producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB)) polyester using corn syrup, a relatively low cost by-product from the starch industries. The concentrations of medium components, corn syrup, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K(2)HPO(4)), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH(2)PO(4)) and ammonium sulfate [(NH(4))(2)SO(4)] were optimized using design of experiments (DOE).

RESULTS: Response surface methodology (RSM) under central composite


design (CCFD) was used to obtain the optimum values of medium components and responses in terms of biomass yield and volumetric P(3HB) productivity. The highest P(3HB) productivity and biomass yield obtained were 0.224 g L(-1) h(-1) and 0.57 g g(-1), respectively. A limited-nitrogen concentration had a higher volumetric P(3HB) productivity (0.170 g L(-1) h(-1)) than that of the excess nitrogen batch experiment (0.0675 g L(-1) h(-1)). The optimum corn syrup : N : P ratio of 50 : 0.078 : 1 was based on numerical optimization of the desirability function between biomass yield and volumetric P(3HB) productivity by Cupriavidus necator DSMZ 545.

CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study demonstrated that P(3HB) could be efficiently produced to a high concentration with high productivity by applying nitrogen limitation in selleckchem a defined medium, indicating this agricultural by-product to be a suitable nutrient source in further studies to develop biomaterials through biotechnology. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Aspirin sensitivity syndrome is an underdiagnosed entity in pediatric otolaryngology. The diagnosis must be considered in a pediatric non-cystic fibrosis patient with florid nasal polyposis. In this small case series, we will describe 2 patient’s presentation, work up, allergic and surgical therapies and their postoperative course.

Sixty-six patients underwent transesophageal testing Forty-nine

Sixty-six patients underwent transesophageal testing. Forty-nine of 66 patients demonstrated low-risk pathway characteristics and 40 of 49 underwent no further testing. In total, 68 of 129 (53%) patients avoided

the need for intracardiac EP study and ablation. A noncardiac indication for the initial diagnostic electrocardiogram EPZ5676 ic50 was associated with lower likelihood of intracardiac EP study. None of the patients stratified as low risk had additional invasive procedures or life-threatening arrhythmias upon follow-up.

Conclusions: Successful risk stratification of pediatric patients with VP is possible through the use of exercise and transesophageal testing. In this patient population, half of the patients were able to avoid an intracardiac EP study. (PACE 2011; 34:555-562).”
“Our objective was to identify the outcome of patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPa) in Pakistan and compare these data to available regional and international data. The charts of all patients treated with r-tPa for acute stroke at two centers in Pakistan (Aga Khan University, Karachi and Liaquat National hospital, Karachi) were retrospectively reviewed. We identified 21 patients. The utilization of tPa at Aga Khan Hospital was 18/1,185 patients (1.5%) from 2005 to 2007 while at Liaquat National Hospital was 3/575 patients (0.52%) over 1 year (2007). Mean

time interval between stroke onset Crenolanib and start of r-tPa infusion was 169 min. Three patients (14%) developed fatal PRT062607 manufacturer hemorrhage and two (10%) developed non-fatal hemorrhage. Four patients (19%) died. We identified protocol violations in seven patients (33%). In conclusion, the utilization of thrombolytic therapy is low and complication rate is high. Interventions for training physicians are needed.”
“Purpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly

women in low-level aged care.

Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.

Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001), lower lean mass (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass (P < 0.01) than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2%) had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia.

Preoperative phlebotomy removed 9 3 +/- A 2 9 mL/kg of blood, and

Preoperative phlebotomy removed 9.3 +/- A 2.9 mL/kg of blood, and 5.6 +/- A 5.1 mL/kg of crystalloid was administered intraoperatively. Within 30 min learn more after phlebotomy, 23 patients had a MAP decrease of 20 % or more from baseline. This fall in MAP coincided with a decrease in rSO(2) of 20 or more at 2 of 114 measured points. Initially, rSO(2) decreased from 74 +/- A 9 to 68 +/- A 10 but thereafter remained constant. On five occasions, rSO(2) decreased 20 or more from baseline, but no patient’s NIRS value was less than 45. A decrease in rSO(2) occurred more commonly in younger patients and those who had a larger volume of blood removed. Preoperative phlebotomy without significant

volume replacement can be performed safely before CPB. Volume replacement may be more appropriately guided by rSO(2) than by hemodynamic variables.”
“Spermatozoa deliver more than the paternal genome into the oocyte; they also carry remnant messenger RNA from spermatogenesis. The RNA profiles of SNX-5422 supplier spermatozoa from high-fertility and a low-fertility Holstein bulls were analysed using Affymetrix bovine genechips. A total of 415 transcripts

out of approximately 24,000 were differentially detected in spermatozoa collected from both bulls (fold change >= 2.0; P < 0.01). These transcripts were associated with different cellular functions and biological processes. Spermatozoa from high-fertility bulls contained higher concentrations of transcripts for membrane and extracellular space protein locations, while spermatozoa from the low-fertility bulls were deficient of transcripts for transcriptional and translational factors. Quantitative real-time PCR was used on three low-fertility and four high-fertility bulls to validate the microarray data. Two highly represented transcripts

in the microarray analysis (protamine 1 and casein beta 2) were validated, as well as a third transcript (thrombospondin receptor CD36 molecule) that showed a lower concentration in low-fertility bulls. This study presents the global analysis of spermatozoa originating from bulls with opposite fertility. A1155463 These results provide some specific transcripts in spermatozoa that could be associated with bull fertility. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The diagnosis and management of prenatal tachyarrhythmias is well established; however, the postnatal course and outcomes are not. The purpose of our study was to review the natural history of patients with fetal tachycardia, determine the incidence of postnatal arrhythmias, and determine whether there are factors to predict which fetuses will develop postnatal arrhythmias. A retrospective chart review of patients with fetal tachyarrhythmias investigated at British Columbia Children’s and Women’s Hospitals between 1983 and 2010 was conducted. Sixty-nine mother-fetus pairs were eligible for the study.

Candidate recipe and operating variables that can be varied to ob

Candidate recipe and operating variables that can be varied to obtain either bimodal or very broad distributions through miniemulsion polymerization are finally identified. MDV3100 in vitro (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 49-61, 2009″
“Magnetic and transport properties of stoichiometric Mn3In

compound are extensively studied by means of dc magnetization, ac susceptibility, magnetic relaxation, and electrical resistivity measurements. It is found that Mn3In is a ferrimagnet with Curie temperature of 80 K and that a metallic spin-glass-like (SGL) state exists below 45 K, which is indicated by the difference between zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization curves, invariable FC moments, large remanence effect, magnetic relaxation, and electrical resistivity abnormality. Moreover, the SGL state

in Mn3In exhibits some anomalous behaviors, such as no cusp in the ZFC curve at the frozen temperature T-f, a remarkable high-field irreversibility, and a high-field relaxation process. The presence Epigenetic inhibitor chemical structure of the SGL state in the Mn3In compound without doping or substitution is discussed in terms of magnetic cluster mode.”
“Objective To determine the prevalence of seizures in cats after head trauma.

Design Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals-52 cats with head trauma.

Procedures Information was obtained from medical records of cats

with head trauma and via telephone interviews of owners at least 2 years after cats had head trauma. Severity of head trauma in cats was classified with the modified Glasgow coma scale (mGCS), and the association between scores and development of seizures was determined.

Results-9 cats had moderate head trauma (mGCS score, 9 to 14), and 43 cats had mild head trauma (mGCS score, 15 to 18). None of the cats developed seizures during the follow-up period (>= 2 years after head injury). The calculated 95% confidence interval for prevalence of seizures buy Roscovitine in cats after head injury was 0% to 5.6%. There was no significant relationship between severity of head trauma and the risk of seizures in cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results indicated the probability that cats with mild to moderate head trauma would develop posttraumatic seizures was low. However, clinicians should monitor cats with a history of head trauma for development of secondary epilepsy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:1467-1470)”
“Vinyltriethoxysilane was used to modify the surface of cotton to provide polymerizable vinyl groups on the fiber surface. An ultraviolet-absorbing monomer, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl methacrylate, was polymerized on the vinyltriethoxysilane-treated fabric to prepare ultraviolet-protective cotton.

Since telomerase is expressed in malignant cells of CTCL, GV1001

Since telomerase is expressed in malignant cells of CTCL, GV1001 vaccination in CTCL is a promising new therapeutic approach. Objective: We sought to investigate the efficacy of GV1001 vaccination in CTCL patients and characterize the induced immune response.

Methods: Six CTCL patients were vaccinated with the GV-peptide using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor as adjuvant. Objective clinical response and the

T cell response were assessed.

Results: None of the patients demonstrated objective clinical response check details to the vaccination whereas one patient showed disease progression. 1/6 patients acquired a GV1001-specifc T cell response with a Th1 cytokine profile and expression of skin-homing receptors. This hTERT-specific

T cell response was not associated with beneficial modulation of the tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Furthermore, removal of regulatory T cells did not enhance responsiveness to GV1001 in vitro in any of the patients analyzed.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the GV1001 vaccination is not effective in CTCL patients and disease progression in 1/6 patients raises concerns about its safety. By analyzing skin-homing properties of GV1001-specific T cells and the involvement of regulatory T cells we nevertheless provide insight into vaccine-induced immune responses which may help to improve vaccine strategies in CTCL. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology.”
“Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) offers a promising treatment for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients for whom a rhythm control strategy is desired. While the precise mechanisms of AF are incompletely understood, there is substantial evidence that in many cases (particularly for paroxysmal AF), ectopic activity most commonly located in and around the pulmonary veins of the left atrium plays a central role in triggering

and/or maintaining arrhythmic episodes. Catheter ablation involves electrically see more disconnecting the pulmonary veins from the rest of the left atrium to prevent AF from being triggered. Further substrate modification may be required in patients with more persistent AF. Successful ablation of AF has never been shown to alter mortality or obviate the need for oral anticoagulation; thus, the primary indication for this procedure should be improvement of symptoms caused by AF. The success rate of catheter ablation for AF is superior to the efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs, but success is still in the range of 75%-90% after 2 procedures. Ablation is also associated with a complication rate of 2%-3%. Thus, ablation should primarily be used as a second-line therapy after failure of antiarrhythmic drugs. In contrast to AF, catheter ablation of atrial flutter has a higher success rate with a smaller incidence of complications. Thus, catheter ablation for atrial flutter may be considered a first-line alternative to antiarrhythmic drugs.

(c) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3631062]“

(c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3631062]“
“The objective of this study was the assessment of the efficiency of the MiniArc

for curing stress urinary incontinence.

Seventy-seven patients, operated on from March 2008 to November 2009, were evaluated in this study. One-year post-operative data are presented. All patients suffered from predominant stress urinary incontinence. After 1 year, response was 74%. Evaluation was performed using a questionnaire consisting of the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, the NCT-501 Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, the Urinary Distress Inventory, the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, short form, and the Defecation Distress Inventory.

One year after surgery, 68% of the patients stated an improvement in their incontinence status, while only 44% stated to be completely dry.

The 1-year follow-up suggests that the MiniArc is less effective in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence than the TVT.”
“Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is extremely rare. In this paper, we present a case of metastatic SCCB managed by chemotherapy and we would provide a brief review

of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, pathologic features, staging, treatment, and prognosis of SCCB. A 52-year-old man was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of a bladder cancer. Computed Salubrinal cost tomography of the pelvis and abdomen showed a large tumor at the right bladder wall, measuring 10 cm in diameter, and a multinodular liver disease. Diagnosis of 3-Methyladenine mw small cell carcinoma was established from the histological study of the transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. The patient received 12 cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy with a good partial response of bladder tumor and liver metastasis. The patient is still alive, 18 months after diagnosis.”
“We have investigated the electrical conduction processes

in as-grown and thermally cycled ZnO single crystal as well as as-grown ZnO polycrystalline films over the wide temperature range 20-500 K. In the case of ZnO single crystal between 110 and 500 K, two types of thermal activation conduction processes are observed. This is explained in terms of the existence of both shallow donors and intermediately deep donors that are consecutively excited to the conduction band as the temperature increases. By measuring the resistivity rho(T) of a given single crystal after repeated thermal cycling in vacuum, we demonstrate that oxygen vacancies play an important role in governing the shallow donor concentrations but leave the activation energy (similar or equal to 27 +/- 2 meV) largely intact. In the case of polycrystalline films, two types of thermal activation conduction processes are also observed between similar to 150 and 500 K.