04, Table 5) Habitat specialists of small GR were far more likel

04, Table 5). Habitat specialists of small GR were far more likely to have an outcrossing mating system compared to habitat specialists of large GR (ratio 16:1, Fig. 3). Fig. 3 Frequency distribution of mating buy INK1197 systems between habitat generalist and habitat specialist species of small GR. Habitat specialists are more likely to have an outcrossing mating system (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.04) Table 5 Results of logistic regression for pollination, dispersal, and mating system Source Nparm DF χ2 Prob > χ2 Pollination  GR 1 1 0.656 0.418  LA 1 1 0.102 0.749  GR*LA 1 1 1.510 0.219  GR 1 1 1.599

0.206  HS 1 1 A-1155463 manufacturer 2.248 0.134  GR*HS 1 1 0.016 0.899 Dispersal  GR 1 1 1.312 0.252

 LA 1 1 2.037 0.154  GR*LA 1 1 2.037 0.154  GR 1 1 2.703 0.100  HS 1 1 0.442 0.506  GR*HS 1 1 0.237 0.627 Mating system  GR 2 2 3.045 0.218  LA 2 2 4.534 0.104  GR*LA 2 2 0.511 0.775  GR 2 2 2.076 0.354  HS 2 2 0.420 0.811  GR*HS 2 2 6.468 0.039 Two models were performed for each dependent variable as HS and LA were correlated and could not be included in the same analysis. Significant P-values (below 0.05) are in bold Discussion Species with small GRs were more likely to have abiotic, rather than biotic, seed dispersal mechanisms. Results for the other two rarity axes were inconclusive. This was likely due to the non-independence between HS and LA in our dataset and our small sample sizes. Seed dispersal click here by gravity is common among plants. It is intuitive that gravity dispersal would lead to small GRs. In this case seed dispersal by gravity may Farnesyltransferase cause this type of rarity rather than be a consequence of it. Water-dispersed species of small GRs are logistically unlikely, although at least one species of mangrove has both these characteristics (Kruckeberg and Rabinowitz 1985). Ant- and ballistic/gravity-dispersed seeds are rarely moved thousands of meters, thus species with these particular dispersal agents are unlikely to have large GRs.

The significant interaction between HS and GR for mating system showed that habitat specialists of small GR are far more likely to have outcrossing mating systems than habitat specialists of large GR. Other studies have found that rarity is associated with higher degrees of self-incompatibility (Kunin and Gaston 1993 and references therein). Greater outcrossing rates leads to greater effective population sizes within populations (Heywood 1986). An outcrossing mating system, therefore, buffers habitat specialists of small GR against genetic drift. Because of the high degree of outcrossing, we then might have expected that habitat specialists of small GR might have had a greater prevalence of insect pollinated species.

The cells were surface stained with anti-CD3+ and anti-CD4+ antib

The cells were surface stained with anti-CD3+ and anti-CD4+ antibodies or anti-CD3+ and anti-CD8+ and analyzed by flow cytometry (P < 0.001). Immunofluorescence analysis and histological changes in the livers of recipient mice Immunofluoresence analysis of the liver sections of the transgenic mice showed infiltration of high number of the CFSE labeled cells, when they received transfer from immunized mice (Figure 9a). H&E staining of the liver sections for the same group of recipient mice showed infiltration of lymphocytes beside

the histological changes, AZD4547 nmr such as steatosis, due to the expression of transgenes (Figure 9b). Interestingly, the infiltrated cells were concentrated in the areas where there was steatosis. On the other hand, the transgenic mice receiving cells from non-immunized donors showed few CFSE labeled cells on the liver sections and no cell infiltration was observed in the H&E stained liver Caspase-independent apoptosis section (Figure 10a, b). The non-transgenic mice showed no histological changes and no infiltration of CFSE labeled cells, whether they received donor cells from immunized (Figure 9c,

d) or non-immunized mice (Figure 10c, d). Thus, repetitive transfer of splenocytes from HCV immunized mice into HCV transgenic mice may be needed in order to increase inflammation in the liver. Figure 9 Histological alterations in livers selleck kinase inhibitor from transgenic and non-transgenic mice injected with CFSE-labeled splenocytes from immunized mice. A) Immunofluorescent analysis of frozen liver sections (5 μm thick) of a transgenic mouse showing CFSE labeled cells scattered over all the liver section. The fluorescent cells are indicated by arrows. B) H&E stained liver section of transgenic mouse showing steatosis. There is infiltration

of lymphocytes in the liver which is concentrated close to hepatic steatosis (indicated by arrows). C) Immunofluorescence analysis of frozen liver sections (5 μm thick) of non-transgenic mouse showing no click here CFSE labeled cells over the liver section. D) H&E staining of liver section of non-transgenic mouse showing normal histology of the liver and no lymphocyte infiltration. Scale bar = 50 μm. Figure 10 Histological alterations in livers from transgenic and non-transgenic mice injected with CFSE-labeled splenocytes from non-immunized mice. A) Immunofluorescent analysis of frozen liver sections (5 μm thick) of a transgenic mouse showing few CFSE labeled cells scattered over all the liver section. B) H&E stained liver section of transgenic mouse showing steatosis. There is no infiltration of lymphocytes in the liver. C) Immunofluorescence analysis of frozen liver sections (5 μm thick) of non-transgenic mouse showing no CFSE labeled cells over the liver section. D) H&E staining of liver sections of non-transgenic mouse showing normal histology of the liver and no lymphocyte infiltration. Scale bar = 50 μm.

Edited by: Mobile DNAII Washington, DC: American Society of Micr

Edited by: Mobile DNAII. Washington, DC: American Society of Microbiology; 2002:305–366. 30. Foster J, Ganatra M, Kamal I, Ware J, Makarova K, Ivanova N, Bhattacharyya A, Kapatral V, Kumar S, Posfai J, Vincze T, Ingram J, Moran L, Lapidus A, Omelchenko M, Kyrpides N, Ghedin E, Wang S, Goltsman E, Joukov V, Ostrovskaya O, Tsukerman K, Mazur M, Comb D, Koonin E, Slatko B: The Wolbachia genome of Brugia malayi : endosymbiont evolution within a human pathogenic nematode. PLoS Biol 2005, 3:E121.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef

31. Ehrman L, Powell JR: The Drosophila willistoni species group. Ashburner, Carson, Thompson 1981–1986, 193–225. CX-6258 32. Miller WJ, Riegler M: Evolutionary dynamics of w Au-like Wolbachia variants in Neotropical Drosophila species. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006, 72:826–835.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 33. Kidwell MG, Novy JB: Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster : sterility resulting from gonadal dysgenesis in the P-M system. Genetics 1979, 92:1127–1140.PubMedCentralPubMed 34. Poinsot D, Montchamp-Moreau C, Merçot H: Wolbachia segregation rate in Drosophila simulans naturally bi-infected cytoplasmic lineages. Heredity (Edinb) 2000,85(Pt 2):191–198.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that

they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DIS and WJM conceived the study. DIS, LK, AEL and WJM designed and performed the experiments. WJM provided material. DIS, LK, AEL and WJM analyzed the data. DIS, LK and WJM wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.”
“Background Formation of persister cells by bacteria is a phenomenon that, amongst SYN-117 in vitro others, contributes to tolerance of a mTOR cancer bacterial subpopulation to antimicrobial agents. Notably, this antibiotic tolerance of persister cells is distinct from genetically inherited resistance. The persister

cell subpopulation has been firstly described and named nearly 70 years ago [1] and research on persister cells has identified a number of typical characteristics as debated recently [2]. Bacterial persister cells seem to represent a stage of dormancy that protects them from killing by antimicrobial substances, ADP ribosylation factor even in the presence of concentrations which vastly exceed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Persister cells are genetically identical to antibiotic sensitive bacteria within a population, but have a distinct phenotype in that they are tolerant to certain antibiotics [3]. Since most antibiotics target bacterial components or pathways involved in replication, the dormancy stage in persister cells is thought to be the underlying mechanism of antibiotic tolerance [4]. Nevertheless, persister celIs can switch from the dormant into a replicating stage. This ‘bet-hedging’ strategy is thought to be a survival strategy of microbial populations [5]. Two different types of persister cells have been postulated.

Overall, the data point to the possibility that the aerobactin tr

Overall, the data point to the possibility that the aerobactin transport system participates in the maintenance of the bacteria within the anaerobic environment of the gut. Therefore, this iron transport system in E. coli O104:H4 becomes an important “fitness” determinant, as in the utilization of ferric iron, it confers a competitive advantage to this and other pathogenic bacteria over SB202190 those organisms that do not possess this transport system. Although the mouse model

does not accurately reflect the intestinal infection or complications seen in humans infected with EAEC, STEC or E. coli O104:H4, it still remains a relatively practical way to investigate the pathogenesis of E. coli strains, especially when compared to more resource-consuming animal models of EAEC/STEC infection, such as the gnotobiotic piglet [33, 34] and the rabbit [35, 36]. Previous studies have shown that an EAEC O104:H4 strain 55989Str can colonize the streptomycin-treated mouse gut extensively for at least 3 weeks [37]. Even though no selleck inhibitor sign of disease was evident in the infected animals, the same model was ABT-737 clinical trial recently used to study the replication of three bacteriophages specific for an EAEC O104:H4 strain, and the mouse intestinal samples enabled the investigators to examine the long-term dynamic interactions between bacteriophages and bacteria within a mammalian host [38]. In the case of STEC, the mouse model

has been developed and used to monitor STEC disease and pathology, as well as the impact of Stx in the promotion of intestinal colonization [39]. In our case, the incorporation of BLI analysis proved a useful tool in facilitating the development of an E. coli O104:H4 pathogenesis model, as it significantly reduced the number of animals required to identify the intestinal site of E. coli O104:H4 persistence and 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase colonization. Although the lux-encoded

plasmid system that we utilized failed to monitor the infection beyond 7 days and the signal decreased significantly with ex vivo intestines, as previously reported [19], it proved to be a useful way of quantifying colonization of this strain while lacking experimental information about putative pathogenic genes. Currently, we are improving our reporter E. coli O104:H4 strain by mobilizing a constitutively expressed lux operon into its chromosome, providing a stable system that can be used to monitor intestinal colonization and persistence properties for an extended period of time. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that bioluminescent imaging is a useful tool to monitor E. coli O104:H4 colonization properties and present the murine model as a rapid means of evaluating the bacterial factors associated with fitness and/or colonization during E. coli O104:H4 infections. Methods Bacterial strains and mutant construction All strains used in this study are derivatives of the E. coli O104:H4 strain C3493, isolated from a stool sample of a patient with HUS during the 2011 E.

Systolic LV dysfunction was defined as EF less than or equal to 5

Systolic LV dysfunction was defined as EF less than or equal to 50%. Quantification

of metric and functional echocardiographic parameters was based on the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography´s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group [12]. Pulsed Doppler traces of the mitral valve inflow were used to extract the ratio of peak early to peak late flow velocities (E/A), E-wave deceleration time (DT), LV isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) and were assessed as standard parameters of LV diastolic function. Diastolic LV dysfunction was defined as E/A inversion and DT above 220 ms on the transmitral Doppler curve (impaired relaxation). The tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the mitral annulus from apical four-chamber view provided additional parameters reflecting the global systolic and diastolic function of the LV. Early diastolic velocity (Ea) of the mitral annulus https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html was considered a good indicator of LV myocardial relaxation and diastolic function, and so was the ratio of early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em) and late diastolic myocardial velocity (Am). Peak

systolic velocity at myocardial segments (Sm) was used to assess systolic function. The ratio of early diastolic LV inflow velocity (E) to Ea of the medial mitral annulus (E/Ea) was used for estimation of the LV filling pressure [13]. Statistical analysis Continuous variables (echocardiographic parameters) are presented as mean ± SD (standard deviation) and the cardiac biomarker NTproBNP as median and interquartile range. this website Comparisons between continuous or categorical variables were performed using the Student t-test, Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon test. Correlations were evaluated with Spearman correlation coefficient. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Serum Selleckchem EPZ5676 levels of NTproBNP were significantly

higher in survivors Cobimetinib chemical structure treated with anthracylines than in controls (median 51.52 vs 17.37 pg/mL; p=0.0026). Survivors exposed to ANT had significantly increased levels of NTproBNP compared with survivors treated without ANT (median 51.52 vs 12.24 pg/mL; p=0.0002). Levels of NTproBNP in survivors not exposed to ANT compared with controls were not significantly different (median 12.24 vs 17.37 pg/mL; p=0.051) (Figure 1). Figure 1 Comparison of serum levels of NTproBNP in studied groups. Box plot shows the minimum, maximum, interquartile range (box), and median values for survivors previously treated with and without ANT and for apparently healthy controls. Whiskers above and below boxes indicate the 90th and 10th percentiles. Closed circles outside of boxes indicate outliers. Abnormal NTproBNP levels were detected in 4/36 (11%) survivors in the ANT group and in 2/33 (6%) in the nonANT group. Women exposed to anthracyclines had significantly higher values of NTproBNP than exposed men: median (25th-75th percentiles): 82.6 (51.5-99.1) vs 38.

It would be prudent to

bear in mind, however, that a nega

It would be prudent to

bear in mind, however, that a negative result for C. difficile does not necessarily mean that the patient can be removed from single room isolation, since the symptoms MX69 clinical trial could be due to another infectious cause such as norovirus. Ideally the patient would be tested for a range of infectious agents to be confident that they do not pose a risk of cross transmission before de-isolating [1]. UK and European guidance recommends click here testing for CDI using a two-step algorithm with either GDH or a molecular test as a first stage and confirming any positives with a toxin enzyme immunoassays (EIA) [21, 22]. This study was conceived and carried out before this guidance was published and there is still debate about the clinical interpretation of PCR positive tests in diarrheal patients [23]. Given the current testing guidelines endorsed by Public Health, England and European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), perhaps there could be additional value of this assay in screening newly admitted patients for colonization. Asymptomatic carriage is widespread

amongst hospital inpatients [24] and potential transmission from this group has already HDAC inhibitor been demonstrated [25]. Peri-rectal swabs could provide a more convenient and acceptable sample type for screening patients [26]. The practice of screening for carriage is not widely practiced, however, modeling has shown that this approach may be cost effective [27]. Financial costs were not evaluated in this study. However, when deciding to implement a POCT, it is important to consider the often hidden costs of support from a local

accredited laboratory, and costs of training and maintenance; these should be measured in any future evaluation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that POCT using the GeneXpert® Baricitinib system is feasible and acceptable to nursing staff and technicians working within the two extremes of these hospital-based settings. The assay has already been used in a variety of settings including in resource poor countries [28, 29]. These types of tests are becoming increasingly more common and it is important that they are assessed in the environment for which they are intended with high-quality clinical utility studies, which also evaluate cost effectiveness. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the staff of the ICUs and older persons’ wards who contributed to the study. This work was funded with a Grant from The Technology Strategy Board (Swindon UK) and by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King’s College London. Article processing charges were funded by Cepheid Europe (Maurens-Scopont, France).

Samples were viewed with a Zeiss fluorescence microscope using ×4

Samples were viewed with a Zeiss fluorescence microscope using ×400 magnification. The arrows indicate the cells stained with anti-hBD2 antibody. The percentage of stained cells was computed from triplicates of four

experiments. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different. +, presence; -, absence of Il-1β, A. fumigatus fixed organisms and latex beads. The punctuated localisation of the signal, which is concentrated adjacent to the nucleus (arrow), was observed. The data shown are representative of four independent experiments. Co-localisation of hBD-2 and different selleck inhibitor A. fumigatus morphotypes Previous experiments showed that human airway epithelial cells A549 internalised A. fumigatus conidia; a phagocytosis rate of 30% has been reported [30]. More then 50% of internalised conidia were found to co-localise after 24 hours with lysosomal

proteins, CD63 and LAMP-1, which revealed the maturation of late endosome into lysosomes [31]. Similar results were obtained with primary human nasal epithelial cells. Staining of the cells with antibody against LAMP-1 demonstrated a positive immunofluorescence signal around digested A. fumigatus conidia [32]. Using the method described by these authors, we determined if different A. fumigatus morphotypes were co-localised with intracellular hBD-2. Labelling A549 cells with anti-hBD-2 antibody revealed cytoplasmic distribution of peptides. Comparison Selleckchem INK-128 of the image of A549 cells stained by anti-hBD-2 antibody and the phase-contrast image revealed a positive immunofluorescence from signal around resting (Figure 8A, B) or swollen (Figure 8E, F) conidia. This suggests a co-localisation of hBD2 and digested RC or SC. In contrast, no positive immunofluorescence signal was detected around HF, whereas the cells were positively stained with anti-human hBD2 antibody (Figure 8I, J). The normal rabbit serum eFT508 purchase control labels neither cytoplasm nor A. fumigatus morphotypes (Figure 8C, D,

G, H, K, L). Similar results were obtained with 16 HBE cells. Figure 8 Co-localisation of hBD2 and A. fumigatus organisms. A549 cells were grown on cover slips for 16 h at 37°C. Cells were exposed to RC (A, B, C, D), SC (E, F, G, H) or HF (I, J, K, L) for 18 hours at 37°C. After fixation and permeabilisation, as described for Figure 7, cells were labelled with specific anti-hBD-2 antibody (A, B, E, F, I, J) and secondary antibody conjugated to Texas-red. Normal rabbit serum was used instead of anti-hBD2 as a negative control (C, D, G, H, K, L). Immunofluorescence signal (A, E, I, C, G, K) was compared to phase contrast image of the same cells (B, F, G, D, H, L). Arrows indicated different A. fumigatus morphotypes. Quantification of hBD2 in cells supernatants by sandwich ELISA In order determine if synthesized hBD2 was released to cell supernatants, the level of hBD2 in the supernatants of 16HBE, A549 and HNT primary culture cells was evaluated by sandwich-ELISA.

Also, in older animals the number of bacteriocytes is strongly de

Also, in older animals the number of bacteriocytes is strongly AZD5363 mw decreased (29.41 ± 5.51 and 16.44 ± 10.83 for W3-1 and W3-2, respectively; due to small sample

size, W3-1 was excluded from ANOVA). The fraction of Blochmannia-infected midgut tissue is significantly increased in developmental stages around metamorphosis from late P1 pupae (and 48.34 ± 11.38) to young workers directly after eclosion (W1: 55.04 ± 9.58) (Figure 12). Figure 12 The figure shows volume fractions of Blochmannia symbionts in the midgut tissue of the various developmental stages shown in Fig. 1 to Fig. 10 calculated from the confocal image stacks as described in the Methods section in arbitrary units. The results show the strong relative decrease of Blochmannia-bearing midgut cells between L1 and L2, the strong increase in bacteria-infected AZD6244 cost cells during the P1 stage and the decrease of bacteria-infected cells in adult animals. Standard deviations are shown as vertical bars on top of the columns. Groups differing significantly at the p < 0.05 level in a Tukey HSD post hoc test are marked with different letters above bars. * W3-1 was not included in the statistical analysis

due to small sample size. Presence of Blochmannia Tucidinostat in vivo in midgut cells other than bacteriocytes As stated above, some Blochmannia may also be found in cells other than bacteriocytes, although the number of bacteria inside these cells appeared to be much lower than in regular bacteriocytes (Figure 5D,E, Figure 6C). The appearance of bacteria-bearing cells not resembling typical bacteriocytes due to their large nuclei was most prominent in pupae around metamorphosis, but occasionally they could also be seen in other developmental stages (Figure 5DE, Figure 10C). An interesting characteristic of such cells was that, frequently, they harbored a much large number of SYTO-stained vesicles than bacteriocytes (Figure

5E). Thus, Blochmannia may have the capacity to actively invade into other cell types within the midgut tissue. In agreement with these findings, Blochmannia was detected occasionally in midgut cells not resembling bacteriocytes in males of C. floridanus and C. herculeanus in a previous study [4]. Tangeritin In the cockroach Blattella germanica its primary endosymbiont (belonging to the Bacteroidetes) is harbored in bacteriocytes lining the fat body. In B. germanica it was observed that in nymphal instars the increase in the number of bacteriocytes was not sufficient to explain the strong increase in the number of cells containing endosymbionts. Thus, it was suggested that in these stages bacteria may have invaded fat body cells other than bacteriocytes [28]. Future work must elucidate the nature of these vesicle-containing cells and whether the vesicles may be directly related to the presence of the endosymbionts.


The staining intensity was scored as: 0 (negative), 1 (weak), 2 (moderate) and 3 (strong). Raw data were converted to IHS by multiplying the quantity score (0-4) by the staining intensity score (0-3). Theoretically, the scores can EPZ015938 range from 0 to 12. An IHS of 9-12 was considered a strong immunoreactivity; 5-8, moderate; 1-4, weak; and 0, negative. In statistical analysis, COX-2 and VEGF-C scores were placed in a high expression group (strong and moderate immunoreactivity) and a low expression group

(weak and negative immunoreactivity). Immunoreactivity was scored by two independent researchers. LVD was detected by immunostaining for D2-40, according to the criteria of Masakau et al. [25]. First, areas with highly D2-40-positive see more vessels (hot spots) in peritumoral, intratumoral and normal tissue were identified, by scanning the sections at low magnification (×100);

then the number of D2-40 positive vessels was counted in five high-magnification fields (×400) for each case. The mean value for the five fields was calculated as the LVD for each tumor. To evaluate the impact of LVD on prognosis, we divided the 56 cases into two groups according to the mean LVD level. Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 11.5 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). The correlations among the expression of COX-2, VEGF-C, levels of LVD, and learn more clinicopathologic characteristics were calculated by Student’s t-test, chi-square correlation test and Spearman’s coefficient of correlation Amobarbital as appropriate. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate

survival as a function of time, and survival differences were analyzed with the log-rank test. A multivariable test was performed to determine the factor correlated with survival length by Cox regression analysis. The statistical significance level was defined as P < 0.05. Results Patient information The 56 patients (35 males and 21 females) had a mean age of 56.2 (range 27-74) years. Twenty-six of the cases displayed weight loss, and 17 presented anemia with hemoglobin (HGB) < 90 g/l. Histological examination showed that 4 displayed well differentiated adenocarcinoma, 18 moderate and 34 poor. According to the sixth AJCC TNM classification, 16 patients were in stage I, 18 in stage II, 19 in stage III, and 3 in stage IV. Of the 56 patients, 39 (69.6%) had lymph node metastasis. Up to 2008, there were 32 patients in total that had died. COX-2, VEGF-C and D2-40 expression in gastric carcinoma Positive expression of COX-2 protein and VEGF-C showed as a yellow or brownish yellow stain in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells (Figures 1 and 2). The expression rates of COX-2 and VEGF-C were 69.64% (39/56) and 55.36% (31/56), respectively, in gastric carcinoma. However, normal tissue showed no immunoreactivity for COX-2 and VEGF-C.

We demonstrated that the kernel factor was to precisely control t

We demonstrated that the kernel factor was to precisely control the ratio of the lateral and vertical etching rate to achieve the desirable geometries. Effective and extreme tailoring of the

diameter of the PS nanosphere mask played a crucial role in achieving the controllable nanogaps between these nanostructures, which could be below 10 nm or even at point contact between two adjacent nanostructures. Applying the reliable 3D nanostructures as tunable SERS substrates, we extensively study influences of geometries, nanogaps, and the adhesion layer between the desirable noble metal and the underlying quartz substrate on SERS enhancement effect. Negative contribution of adhesive layer was demonstrated according to the results of SERS enhancement factors. The tunable SERS substrates possess great advantages: (1) achieving strong average SERS enhancement factor up to BB-94 supplier 1011; (2) free-adhesion layer; (3) a platform for any desirable metal, and can be reused by simply removing and redepositing the metal film while not destructing the 3D nanostructures or repeating the tedious fabricating Necrostatin-1 datasheet procedures. Due to the increase in damping plasmonic

resonance with increasing the thickness of the adhesion, we suggest the suitable adhesion of Ti layer below 5 nm and of Cr below 2 nm. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Chinese National Science and Technology Plan 973 with Grant No. 2007CB935301. Disclosure This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, VX-680 in vitro distribution, and reproduction Florfenicol in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Influence of nanogaps in the 3D nanostructures and reusability of the SERS substrate. (DOCX 225 KB) References 1. Jeanmaire DL, van Duyne RP: Surface Raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part

I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode. J Electroanal Chem 1977,84(10):1–20.CrossRef 2. Fang Y, Seong N–H, Dlott DD: Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Science 2008, 321:388–392.CrossRef 3. Moskovits M: Surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Rev Mod Phys 1985,57(3):783–826.CrossRef 4. Kneipp K, Wang Y, Kneipp H, Itzkan I, Dasari RR, Feld MS: Population pumping of excited vibrational states by spontaneous surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Physc Rev Lett 1996,76(9):1667–1670. 5. Moskovits M: Persistent misconceptions regarding SERS. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2013,15(15):5301–5311.CrossRef 6. Anker JN, Hall WP, Lyandres O, Shah NC, Zhao J, van Duyne RP: Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors. Nat Mater 2008, 7:442–453.CrossRef 7. Pendry JB, Martin-Moreno L, Garcia-Vidal FJ: Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces. Science 2004,305(6):847–848.CrossRef 8. Nie S, Emory SR: Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.