For schistosomiasis it is firmly established that the probability

For schistosomiasis it is firmly established that the probability of infection increases with increasing proximity to an infectious water source which might explain this decline as households are located further away from water collection points on the northern shoreline.19 and 25 However, for malaria it could point

towards a density dependant effect where transmission is highest amongst people who live in closest proximity to one another.17 and 26 Having the position of the households allows investigations of other factors which might locally perturb the occurrence of infections, MAPK Inhibitor Library manufacturer as well as control interventions that are set in place to diminish them.27 For example, 97.6% of our study cohort reported having recently accessed local health services. Interestingly, 23.6% of mothers reported having to walk for less than one hour with the remaining Bafetinib molecular weight study population having to walk for 1–4 hours. General access to medications was reasonable and across the village 76% reported having a bednet in their household, with just over half of these reporting it was insecticide treated. We are yet to plot distribution of these bednets across the village but their presence could potentially mitigate the transmission dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes within Bukoba.27 For hookworm, only a quarter of our cohort reported regularly wearing sandals, a well-known factor protecting against infection.6 It is clear that

knowing the location of households enables a new level of geospatial modelling and investigation of risk factors across an examined cohort. As we follow the infection dynamics of these three diseases through time it could also provide new spatial insights into longitudinal processes.28 Previous work has shown that in the context of host morbidity knowing the spatial co-occurrence of malaria and schistosomiasis is very important.13 and 14 The on-the-ground accuracy of these units was very good, equivalent to the Oregon 550t unit which is currently tenfold higher in price. However, the Oregon 550t is able to take ‘geostamped’ digital images which is particularly Fossariinae useful

as an aide memoire for specific visual points of interest, for example, conditions at each household such as grass thatching or metal roofing, or at points along the way such as small water bodies or agricultural land use.20 Most importantly these images can also be uploaded onto GoogleEarth and geospatially aligned to further augment the visual information apparent from the background satellite image. A number of our GPS units malfunctioned in the field some of which resulted in the loss of captured data upon download (eight households). We speculate that the majority of the malfunctions were the result of insufficiently robust hardware for field conditions, often compromising the ability to synchronise with satellites due to humidity and/or water exposure, or due to poor quality software (a common error was the software failing to recognise the device).

, 2009 and Mattsson et al , 2010) Furthermore, systemic bacteria

, 2009 and Mattsson et al., 2010). Furthermore, systemic bacterial infections are considered to be a risk factor for sporadic AD, connecting infection, inflammation and alterations in amyloid metabolism and leading to cognitive disturbances (Dunn et al., 2005, Honjo et al., 2009 and Eikelenboom et al., 2012). A potential function of the Aβ-peptides in this context may be to opsonize pathogens to support their clearance and/or act as soluble factors with cytokine or chemokine activities.

We have previously reported that monocyte activation by the phagocytosis of polystyrene beads induces APP glycosylation and Aβ-peptide secretion (Spitzer et al., 2010). We observed a relative increase in the release of N-terminally truncated Anti-infection Compound Library Aβ peptide species from

activated monocytes (Maler et al., 2008 and Spitzer et al., 2010). In the current study, we used mononuclear phagocytes as a model to investigate the impact of various Aβ-peptides on the phagocytosis of polystyrene particles or Escherichiacoli bacteria and on concurrent macrophage polarization. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by Ficoll (Biochrom, Germany) density gradient centrifugation from buffy coats purchased at Transfusionsmedizin Suhl, Germany. Thrombocytes were removed by under-laying an Crenolanib mw FCS-gradient and centrifugation at 75g for 15 min. Monocytes were isolated from PBMCs by the antibody-mediated removal of non-monocytes using a MACS Monocyte Isolation Kit II (Miltenyi Biotec, Germany) and MACS LS Columns (Miltenyi Biotec, Germany). For the analysis of undifferentiated

monocytes, the cells were resuspended in serum-free AIM-V medium and seeded at a density of 1 × 106 cells/ml in 96-well ultra-low attachment plates (Corning, USA). Differentiated macrophages were obtained by cultivating monocytes for seven days at 8 × 105 cells/ml in RPMI 1640 with 10% FCS in 96-well plates (Biochrom, Germany). For the polarization of macrophages, 40 ng/ml rhGM-CSF (Immunotools, Germany) FER or 80 ng/ml rhM-CSF (Immunotools, Germany) was added to the culture medium, respectively. After three days, 50% of the medium was exchanged. THP-1 cells were obtained from ATCC and maintained below 1 × 106 cells/ml in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FCS. For differentiation to macrophages, THP-1 cells were cultured at 2 × 106 cells/ml for three days in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and 50 ng/ml phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, Sigma–Aldrich, Germany). Primary cultures of porcine microglia were isolated following a protocol adapted from Franke (Franke et al., 2000). Briefly, the secretory areas, cerebellum and meninges were removed from brain hemispheres obtained from a local abattoir. After mincing the tissue, it was incubated for 2 h with 6.5% (v/v) dispase (BD, Germany) at 37 °C. Lipids were removed by mixing 100 mL of the cell suspension with 150 mL of dextran solution (ρ = 1.

The consumption of NADPH was followed by the decrease in absorban

The consumption of NADPH was followed by the decrease in absorbance at 340 nm for 3 minutes at 37 °C. Activity was corrected for protein content of the samples and expressed in nmol/mg protein per minute. 1.1E7 cells were incubated with 0.5 mM CML for 24 hours. After incubation, cells were check details washed with HBSS, harvested with trypsin-EDTA and centrifuged (1000xg, 5 minutes, 4 °C). Cell pellets were then resuspended in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 containing 6.3 mM EDTA. Next, cells

were sonicated in icy water for 10 minutes and centrifuged (15 minutes, 10.000xg, 4 °C). Final reaction mixture (1 ml) contained 1 mM GSH and 50 μl sample in buffer. The reaction was started by the addition of 1 mM CDNB (in ethanol). The production of GS-dinitrobenzene was followed by the increase in absorbance at 340 nm for 3 minutes at 37 °C. With each run a spontaneous reaction was included that contained buffer instead of a sample. Activity was corrected for spontaneous reaction and for protein content of the samples and expressed in μmol/mg protein per minute. 1.1E7 cells were incubated with 0.5 mM CML for 24 hours. After incubation, cells were washed with HBSS, harvested with trypsin-EDTA and centrifuged (1000xg, 5 minutes, 4 °C). Cell pellets were then resuspended

in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 containing 1 mM EDTA. Next, cells were sonicated in icy water for 10 minutes and centrifuged (15 minutes, 10.000xg, 4 °C). Final reaction mixture (1 ml) contained 0.5 mM GSH, 0.2 mM NADPH, 1

unit glutathione click here reductase and 50 μl sample in buffer. The reaction was started by the addition of 0.35 mM 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide (HED). The decrease in absorbance at 340 nm, which accompanies the oxidation of NADPH, was monitored for 3 minutes at 37 °C. Activity was corrected for protein content of the samples and expressed in μmol/mg protein per minute. Protein concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically using the DC protein assay kit (Biorad, Veenendaal, The Netherlands) according to manufacturer’s protocol. The effect of CML incubation was tested using Student’s t-test for independent samples or the Mann-Whitney U test when not normally distributed. P-values Amobarbital <0.05 were considered statistically significant and P-values <0.1 were considered statistical trends. We also include statistical trends because for bioactive molecules like GSH, even a small percentage change in the amount can be of biological relevance. Statistical analyses were analyzed with SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The effect of CML exposure on 1.1E7 cell viability was determined by MTT assay (Figure 1A) . At concentrations up to 0.125 mM a dose-dependent decrease in viability of 100% to 87% was observed, albeit with a high degree of variation between the different experiments. Above 0.125 mM the additional decrease in viability was only 4%. CML concentrations higher than 0.

5 wt% Me2SO has been added to the cell medium This dramatically

5 wt% Me2SO has been added to the cell medium. This dramatically changes the equilibrium phase diagram since Me2SO also will be concentrated in the unfrozen interdendritic channels [9]. Hydrohalite was only observed in two samples out of six, where one only contained a very limited amount of hydrohalite, which is in stark contrast

to the experiments not using Me2SO. The lack of hydrohalite is unexpected since the phase diagram and earlier studies show that hydrohalite can form in hypertonic solutions with a higher Me2SO to NaCl ratio as a continuous precipitation process [10]. This study is done on an isotonic solution, which in equilibrium would form hydrohalite at these temperatures, but has much narrower interdendritic channels compared to a hypertonic 5-Fluoracil chemical structure solution. Two kinetic factors can limit the formation of hydrohalite; viscosity and impeded diffusion due to narrow interdendritic channels. The viscosity in the unfrozen solution is high due the presence of Me2SO and the low temperatures. Diffusion afflux to any hydrohalite crystal embryos is furthermore limited due to the very low interdendritic cross sections. We believe that

a combination of these two factors prevented hydrohalite formation in the majority of the investigated samples. Three of the recorded Raman images for the one sample containing a significant amount of hydrohalite are shown in Fig. 5. The recorded images can be divided Alectinib cost into classes using the categorization method presented earlier. Fig. 5a show cells

where there is no overlap between cellular matter Quinapyramine and the hydrohalite phase, i.e. Class A. In total 3 out of 6 images contained clearly extracellular hydrohalite. Fig. 5b and c does on the other hand show a certain spatial overlap of compound distributions, but not in a significant manner that we would correlate to intracellular hydrohalite. The distribution of hydrohalite in these Raman images can be best classified to Class C for Fig. 5c and a superposition of Class A and C for Fig. 5b using the colocalization method. We have shown that confocal Raman microscopy can be utilized to extract detailed chemical information of frozen biological samples. In samples without Me2SO we used this method to determine the distribution of hydrohalite and thus indirectly conclude if eutectic formation has occurred. It turns out that hydrohalite can either form in the very close proximity of cells as non-uniform shell or even intracellularly. Hydrohalite is thus not a strictly extracellular phenomenon. Furthermore, we showed that hydrohalite has a higher probability of forming within the cytoplasm when ice is also present. Eutectic formation in general has been shown to lead to cell death [8], but the exact injury mechanism has not been determined. We have shown that hydrohalite formation, and thus eutectic formation, can occur both within and outside cells, which can bring a more detailed view on the mortality of eutectic formation.

Given that hydroquinone is a relevant environment pollutant, and

Given that hydroquinone is a relevant environment pollutant, and that bioremediation has obvious advantages over chemical degradation,

efforts have been made to identify microorganisms capable Selleckchem Inhibitor Library of hydroquinone degradation under harsh conditions [6], [11], [23] and [35]. However, studies monitoring the efficiency of hydroquinone removal have remained scarce. The present study shows that P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum exhibits high tolerance and degradation capacity to hydroquinone, as it was able to remove up to 7265 μM of the aromatic compound under 1 M NaCl. Furthermore, a cumulative O2 uptake of 440 and 720 mg/l was obtained in respirometric assays for initial hydroquinone concentrations of 4541 μM and 7265 μM, respectively. Since the theoretical carbonaceous oxygen demand (ThOD) for 4541 and 7265 μM of hydroquinone was calculated to be 872 mg/l and 1395 mg/l, respectively, our results indicate that at least 50% of carbon from hydroquinone is converted to CO2, supporting the hypothesis that hydroquinone is a substrate readily and efficiently used by fungus. In conclusion, in vitro tests showed that hydroquinone is cytotoxic for human fibroblasts and HCT116 cells. Moreover, hydroquinone induces DNA damage to fibroblast and HCT116 cells selleck inhibitor in the form of DNA single and double strand breaks as it was demonstrated by alkaline comet assay. Our data provides

also the first evidence that, without prior acclimation, P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum has the capacity to degrade hydroquinone present at high initial concentrations in hypersaline media to levels that are non-genotoxic to human cells. Overall, the present study supports tuclazepam the potential of P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum for the treatment of salty phenolic-contaminated wastewaters. [9] and [27]. This work was partially supported by a Gulbenkian Foundation research grant (#96526/2009) awarded to JF,

and PD received support from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/FCT-Portugal (SFRH/BD/45502/2008). “
“Engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) find widespread application leading to exposure of humans via oral intake and inhalation. Despite their widespread use, the potential toxicological implications and molecular modes of action are not well known. In mice, SiO2-NPs occurred in mononuclear phagocytic cells in liver and spleen and induced hepatocytic necrosis, increased serum aminotransferase, and inflammatory cytokines [31]. The clearance from bloodstream and tissues can be very slow [10]. SiO2-NPs enter cells and induce time- and size-dependent cytotoxicity at high doses by induction of oxidative stress, membrane damage, as well as disturbed calcium homeostasis [3] and [33]. Recently, we have shown that SiO2-NPs also lead to induction of ER stress in human hepatoma cells [12].

The results establish that films based on plasticized cassava sta

The results establish that films based on plasticized cassava starch reinforced with clay nanoparticles can be considered as an interesting biodegradable alternative packaging material. Nevertheless, further research is necessary to improve their mechanical and barrier properties since see more adequate tensile strength and extensibility are generally required for a packaging film to withstand external stress and maintain its integrity as well as barrier properties during applications in food packaging. These

issues should be focused in future studies. A direction of the investigation will be the development of complementary approaches to give further insight into the molecular structure of biodegradable films based on cassava starch. Moreover, the elaboration of biodegradable films by extrusion is the main point to explore in a next future, representing an evolution of this research, since a twin screw extruder, equipment conventionally used in flexible packaging industries, yields films with better mechanical and barrier Ibrutinib molecular weight properties due to the complete delamination

of clay nanoparticles. Finally, as a natural biopolymer, besides its biodegradable character, starch would be a promising alternative for the development of new food packaging materials because of its attractive combination of availability and price, supporting the continuity of this study. This research was supported by FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation) and CAPES (Brazilian Committee for Postgraduate Courses in Higher Education). Authors would like to thank Profa. Dra. Miriam Dupas Hubinger (Process Engineering Laboratory, State University of Campinas, Brazil) for her help with DSC analysis. “
“Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is the commonest cause of acute hospital admission to gastroenterology and therefore has a large impact on the acute medical admission workload. Changes in management have been shown in randomized controlled trials to improve outcome from gastrointestinal

hemorrhage, but the largest observational studies of mortality trends following upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage report Lepirudin no improvement in overall mortality over the last 2 decades.1, 2 and 3 This failure to demonstrate an improvement suggests either that clinical guidelines4 and 5 derived from the results of randomized controlled trials are not generalizable to the clinical population, that they are not being implemented appropriately, or that the patients have changed at the same time as the treatments. This latter explanation, with increasing age and comorbidity confounding the effects of therapy, has been proposed as the likely explanation.6 and 7 However, this has not been proven because to reliably measure the effect of changes in age and comorbidity on mortality necessitates larger studies than have been published.

, 2009 and Wolfgang et al , 2009) about the low-titre infections

, 2009 and Wolfgang et al., 2009) about the low-titre infections not traceable by conventional PCR techniques (i.e. low copy numbers of Wolbachia in the infected individuals) we infer that this could be the case of those populations. buy AZD6244 A possible strategy to confirm the low infection rates on those populations could be to perform a high sensitive nested PCR technique, such as that on Wolfgang et al. (2009), an interesting subject of study in future and further investigation in those Brazilian ants. A positive relationship has also been found between

Wolbachia infections and latitudinal distribution. Northern, central-western, and northeastern populations have low or no Wolbachia infection rates, indicating that incidence is apparently lower in regions with long dry seasons or high daily average temperatures. This has been observed in the beetle Chelymorpha alternans and in ants of the genus Solenopsis ( Ahrens and Shoemaker, 2005 and Keller et al., 2004). The distribution of Wolbachia in S. invicta can be influenced by differences in environmental conditions, with higher Wolbachia prevalence occurring in more southerly temperate populations ( Ahrens and Shoemaker, 2005). The higher frequency of some Wolbachia strains in colonies from southern and southeastern regions

might be due to infection by a strain in several local populations, or even a strain in many populations C59 wnt of two or more species. The polytomies found in the phylogenic analysis support this hypothesis. The high frequency of a few strains might also be a consequence of the original foundresses infected (founder effect) with Wolbachia and their expansion in these regions. The “satellite” strains ( Fig. 2), which are linked to more frequent Adenosine variants, might result from few differences in gene sequence due to mutations, as described by Ahrens and Shoemaker (2005) or recombination of the most frequent one. All ant populations from Corrientes, Argentina were infected with Wolbachia, with only three variants. Two of them belong to supergroup B, one was found

in most colonies sampled, H26, and another one from supergroup A. The strains of group B are very closely related, and are part of the polytomy revealed in the phylogenic tree ( Fig. 4). These data corroborates the results found in populations from southern Brazil, where Wolbachia infections were more successful and are more abundant. High incidence of Wolbachia infection in ants, as reported in previous studies, was also found in the genus Solenopsis in Brazil. This high incidence might be due to the more favorable conditions of invasion and maintenance of the Wolbachia infection in haplodiploid social hosts when compared with solitary hosts ( Wenseleers et al., 1998). In addition, the occurrence of multiple infections in some nests can influence reproductive conflicts and combined with other reproductive barriers, it might accelerate speciation ( Werren, 1997).

This study aimed to contribute to debates related to European aqu

This study aimed to contribute to debates related to European aquaculture development as well as to environmental justice literature by analyzing existing finfish aquaculture conflicts in Europe and by linking them

to the policy level. It underlines that while establishing new strategies for European aquaculture, the focus should not be solely on economic growth, but rather on ecologically, socially and economically sustainable and just development of marine aquaculture. Integration of economic, social and ecological concerns into national and regional aquaculture strategy plans proves to be potentially challenging but necessary in order to ensure social acceptance of fish farms and to control the impacts of new and already existing ones. The article concludes by emphasizing the significance of marine high throughput screening finfish aquaculture conflicts in Europe and the lessons to be learned in terms of their policy implications. An effective participatory decision-making mechanism should be designed that takes the views and perceptions of all relevant actors into account in order to determine whether or not to construct fish farms; and if yes, where to build them and how many. Best practices safeguarding environmental justice such as the establishment of inclusive decision-making mechanisms, ensuring

access to transparent information Antidiabetic Compound Library price and an equitable social distribution of burdens, benefits and risks resulting from aquaculture activities should be further investigated and incorporated into future policies. Research for this paper benefited from EC funding under the Marie Curie Actions – Initial

GPCR & G Protein inhibitor Training Networks – FP7 – PEOPLE – 2011; Contract no. 289374 – “ENTITLE”. The research would not have been made possible without the support of interviewees who kindly shared their opinions and knowledge. The authors especially desire to acknowledge Seas at Risk network for facilitating contact and the valuable comments and efforts of Begüm Özkaynak, Pınar Ertör Akyazı, Santiago Gorostiza Langa, Melissa Garcia Lamarca and Marien González Hidalgo. “
“The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) aims to achieve and/or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) of EU marine waters by 2020. The Directive defines GES as: “The environmental status of marine waters where these provide ecologically diverse and dynamic oceans and seas which are clean, healthy and productive” (MSFD Article 3). GES is described by a comprehensive set of 11 qualitative descriptors. Descriptor 5 relates specifically to eutrophication and states that the human-induced eutrophication should be minimized. One of the first steps that had to be finished until July 2012 was the initial assessment of Member States׳ marine waters (Art. 8 MSFD), the determination of GES (Art. 9 MSFD) and the establishment of environmental targets and associated indicators to achieve GES (Art. 10 MSFD).

GMP consist of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) l

GMP consist of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) linked with low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) through disulfide bonds [6]. HMW-GS play an important role in determining the glutenin protein network structure [5],

and LMW-GS may also have a specific effect on glutenin aggregation [4]. GMP consisting of a higher ratio of HMW-GS to LMW-GS is correlated with improved wheat flour quality [7]. Therefore, subunit composition and GMP characteristics determine the rheological properties of wheat dough, and a close correlation between GMP Ixazomib cell line characteristics and end-use quality has been shown. HMW-GS are encoded by polymorphic genes at the Glu-1 loci on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Hexaploid wheat usually contains 3–5 subunits, zero or one encoded by Glu-A1, one or two by Glu-B1 and two by Glu-D1 [8]. The content and size distribution of GMP in wheat grains are both genetically and environmentally controlled. Drought promotes HMW-GS accumulation

in the early grain filling stage, whereas the opposite effect occurs at late grain filling [9]. Increasing N fertilizer increases the proportion of GMP in wheat flour [10]. Clay soil results in the accumulation of HMW-GS and GMP when compared to loam soil and sandy soil [11]. When under high temperature stress during the kernel filling period, the contents of particular Glu-D1 HMW-GS in weak-gluten wheat are much more sensitive than that in strong-gluten wheat [12]. In recent years, frequent soil water stress in northern China has influenced both dry matter production 5-FU purchase and quality of wheat [13]. Increased N levels promoted the accumulation of HMW and LMW-GS, GMP content and proportion of larger GMP particles under irrigated conditions. Under rainfed conditions, increased N fertilizer also increased protein content [14]. Both dough development time and dough stability time were longest with a single post-anthesis irrigation, whereas a second irrigation led to shortened dough development and dough stability times and weakened gluten strength, as well as a decreased glutenin polymerization

index and average sized GMP [15]. However, information about the impact of different irrigation patterns Cell Cycle inhibitor on accumulations of GMP in wheat grain is still limited. Although numerous studies have been conducted on size distribution and properties of GMP particles in wheat grains, there is limited information about the size distribution of different quality types of wheat under irrigated and rainfed conditions. The objective of the present study was to investigate differences that may occur in GMP accumulation in field-grown wheat cultivars under irrigated and rainfed regimes. HMW-GS and GMP contents and GMP particle distributions in four wheat cultivars were therefore investigated. The experiment was conducted on the experimental farm of the Research Institute of Agricultural Science (37°N, 116°E), Dezhou, China.

While this perception by classroom practitioners could be empiric

While this perception by classroom practitioners could be empirically confirmed among the teachers involved in the development and implementation of this study (Kuhn, 2010 and Kuhn et al., 2008), the broadening of its range

of application to other science education topics (e.g. chemistry) and similar BI-6727 learning media (e.g. problems based on advertisements) is an obvious generalization which was proposed to us by many teachers (see also section above). Several ideas of this kind were already tried out and investigated within the classroom research and development network established since the beginning of the research project (Kuhn, 2005, Kuhn, 2010, Kuhn et al., 2010 and Kuhn and Müller, 2014). We consider this line of thought as important in order to increase Selleckchem DAPT further the applicability and practicability of the NSP approach, combine in with other instructional approaches, and, when pursued further, to modify and broaden also future research directions. Thus, implications and perspectives for classroom practice are

in close connection with implications for future investigations (points 1 and 2 above). The same holds for the research agenda concerning openness and complexity, which are obviously also relevant for classroom implementation. This contribution should in no way be read as a pleading for an exclusively NSP-based curriculum, in view of the limitations of the study (such as duration and educational objectives considered), and because teaching and learning live on a variety of methods. But, concluding with Fensham (2009) we feel “that ‘Science as a Story’ need to become a quite central pedagogy in science teaching”, and that newspaper story problems might offer

a useful contribution Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 to that purpose. None of the authors have any conflict of interest. “
“L׳ESS è ritenuta ormai indispensabile alla formazione di cittadini capaci di orientarsi consapevolmente e criticamente in un mondo globalizzato, informandosi e prendendo decisioni nel rispetto dell׳unico supporto vitale dell׳intera società: l׳ambiente (Kyburz-Graber et al., 2006 and Kyburz-Graber et al., 2010). Tuttavia, la declinazione operativa dell׳ESS in termini sia didattici sia pedagogici risulta ancora problematica, in quanto l׳interdisciplinarietà e la complessità dei suoi temi richiedono approcci innovativi che i docenti dovrebbero sviluppare già durante la propria formazione (Kyburz-Graber et al., 2006). Un primo ostacolo è rappresentato dalla definizione degli obiettivi e dalla scelta dei metodi. Discutendo ad esempio studi di caso reali, pratica diffusa nell׳ESS ( Kyburz-Graber, 2006, Kyburz-Graber et al., 2010), le competenze di analisi dei problemi vengono in genere innescate separatamente da quelle di mobilitazione.