GMP consist of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) l

GMP consist of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) linked with low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) through disulfide bonds [6]. HMW-GS play an important role in determining the glutenin protein network structure [5],

and LMW-GS may also have a specific effect on glutenin aggregation [4]. GMP consisting of a higher ratio of HMW-GS to LMW-GS is correlated with improved wheat flour quality [7]. Therefore, subunit composition and GMP characteristics determine the rheological properties of wheat dough, and a close correlation between GMP Ixazomib cell line characteristics and end-use quality has been shown. HMW-GS are encoded by polymorphic genes at the Glu-1 loci on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Hexaploid wheat usually contains 3–5 subunits, zero or one encoded by Glu-A1, one or two by Glu-B1 and two by Glu-D1 [8]. The content and size distribution of GMP in wheat grains are both genetically and environmentally controlled. Drought promotes HMW-GS accumulation

in the early grain filling stage, whereas the opposite effect occurs at late grain filling [9]. Increasing N fertilizer increases the proportion of GMP in wheat flour [10]. Clay soil results in the accumulation of HMW-GS and GMP when compared to loam soil and sandy soil [11]. When under high temperature stress during the kernel filling period, the contents of particular Glu-D1 HMW-GS in weak-gluten wheat are much more sensitive than that in strong-gluten wheat [12]. In recent years, frequent soil water stress in northern China has influenced both dry matter production 5-FU purchase and quality of wheat [13]. Increased N levels promoted the accumulation of HMW and LMW-GS, GMP content and proportion of larger GMP particles under irrigated conditions. Under rainfed conditions, increased N fertilizer also increased protein content [14]. Both dough development time and dough stability time were longest with a single post-anthesis irrigation, whereas a second irrigation led to shortened dough development and dough stability times and weakened gluten strength, as well as a decreased glutenin polymerization

index and average sized GMP [15]. However, information about the impact of different irrigation patterns Cell Cycle inhibitor on accumulations of GMP in wheat grain is still limited. Although numerous studies have been conducted on size distribution and properties of GMP particles in wheat grains, there is limited information about the size distribution of different quality types of wheat under irrigated and rainfed conditions. The objective of the present study was to investigate differences that may occur in GMP accumulation in field-grown wheat cultivars under irrigated and rainfed regimes. HMW-GS and GMP contents and GMP particle distributions in four wheat cultivars were therefore investigated. The experiment was conducted on the experimental farm of the Research Institute of Agricultural Science (37°N, 116°E), Dezhou, China.

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