per year The main alternative to islet transp


per year. The main alternative to islet transplantation is whole pancreas transplantation, which also has a five-year graft survival rate of 50%, but much higher insulin independence rates. However, this is associated with significantly higher surgical morbidity. Islet transplantation is very safe, the main risks being related to immunosuppression. We have a lot of experience with these drugs in solid organ transplantation. The main risk is a 4% excess risk of skin cancers, the majority of which are curable. It is important for hypoglycaemia status to be assessed in all patients with type 1 diabetes, so that those with problematic severe hypoglycaemia can be identified. In these patients, islet transplantation can offer potential normalisation of Pexidartinib clinical trial blood glucose with complete resolution of hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. “
“Evaluation of diabetes education is difficult. This is particularly so when a beneficial clinical outcome may be seen as just a result of good clinical care. The added value of an approach to care using diabetes education concepts is then difficult to see. We believe our diabetes specialist care inpatient team does not only

provide focused regular care to patients; the team also intends to educate patients, non-specialist health care professionals, and ourselves. We have used audit standards derived from the questions and answers of the National Diabetes Inpatient Audits (NDIAs) for 2009–2011 to evaluate our performance as diabetes educators in the inpatient setting of a small district general hospital in click here Wessex. The results are favourable. Likewise, we have compared the performance in the 2010 NDIA of five acute trusts, including our own in Wessex, relating diabetes nurse specialist time available, and the presence of a dedicated team, to quality outcomes. Finally, we discuss some broad concepts of delivering diabetes education to inpatients and non-specialist health

care professionals, trained or in training; we also Vildagliptin suggest some possible modifications to the NDIA to strengthen its use as an evaluation tool for diabetes education in the inpatient setting in secondary care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons. “
“This 81-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes presented with a cramping right arm, trismus, stiffness in the jaw, swallowing and breathing difficulties. He developed respiratory failure shortly after admission so was intubated on the intensive therapy unit where he received tetanus immunoglobulin and a course of metronidazole. Kilic et al. compared the level of tetanus antitoxin between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. They found a statistically significant difference between the groups, with people with diabetes having lower antitoxin levels.

Also, the overall cost of surgical care is higher The influence

Also, the overall cost of surgical care is higher. The influence of lymphadenectomy on long-term QOL is less clear. For the above reasons, it is important to limit the performance and the extent of lymphadenectomy to patients who may potentially benefit from it. Although lymphadenectomy is aimed at documenting the presence of lymphatic metastases, there is still no consensus about the best adjuvant approach selleck in EC patients with positive lymph nodes. The Gynecologic

Oncology Group 122 trial[50] suggested that chemotherapy (doxorubicin and cisplatin) provides better survival than radiotherapy (whole abdominal irradiation) in stage III or IV and with 2 cm or less of residual disease. However, chemotherapy decreased the distant recurrence rate (from 19% to 10%) at the cost of a higher pelvic recurrence Rucaparib mouse rate (from 13% to 18%). Interestingly, the authors reported that chemotherapy was not significantly better than abdominal radiation in patients with non-endometrioid tumors.[50] Similarly, the results of two randomized

studies (NGSO/ERTC and MaNGO ILIADE-III), including high-risk EC patients (stage I to III), indicated that the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to radiation improved disease-free survival overall, especially in the subgroup with grade 1 and 2 endometrioid EC. Chemotherapy was less likely to be beneficial in patients with endometrioid grade 3 and type 2 EC.[51] In agreement with the above results, we recently demonstrated that chemotherapy did not significantly impact prognosis in stage III patients with high-risk histology (endometrioid grade 3 and type 2 EC).[18] Although in our study radiotherapy

(with or without chemotherapy) independently influenced survival in patients from with stage III poorly differentiated cancer, the treatment failure rates remained extremely high, with a 67% recurrence rate at 3 years in patients with stage III and lymphovascular invasion.[18] Similarly, Sutton et al.,[52] in another Gynecologic Oncology Group study, reported that patients with stage III and IV high-risk histology (serous and clear cell) experienced 3-year recurrence-free and overall survival of 27% and 35%, respectively, when treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy. Owing to the fact that radiotherapy seems to provide adequate locoregional protection of the targeted tissues but not systemic control, several authors suggested that combining radiotherapy and chemotherapy may guarantee better locoregional and systemic protection.[53, 54] Secord et al.,[55] in a multi-institutional series of 265 stage IIIC EC (type 1 and type 2), reported that patients undergoing chemotherapy alone had a 2.2- and 4.0-fold increased risk of recurrence and death than patients who had chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. In contrast, there was no difference in survival between patients undergoing radiotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy.


leukocytosis was a marked feature in antibod


leukocytosis was a marked feature in antibody-positive persons. Eosinophil counts were above 20% (normal range, 2%–6%) in 45/66 (68.2%) patients, with 19/66 (28.8%) of the antibody-positive patients having eosinophilia above 50%. The highest eosinophil count was 81% in a patient with a total WBC count of 47.1 × 109/L. Total WBC counts were therefore correspondingly high with 56% above 10 × 109/L. Of the 77 patients, 49 submitted stool samples for examination. Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in five stools using the GSK126 order formol-ether concentration method. Ten persons also provided urine samples for analysis, but none was positive for Schistosoma haematobium. During physical examination, various allergic reactions were seen or described by the patients as unexplained illnesses in the previous 1 month. They included periorbital edema, conjunctivitis, swollen lips, glossitis, blurred vision, itching with skin rashes, erythematic INK 128 cell line lesions, and edema of fingers. Other generalized symptoms noted, which were perceived by patients to be similar to malaria, included fever, headache, low back pain, abdominal disturbances, and dizziness. More than 70% (54) of the patients

examined were children growing up in Nairobi who had never been exposed to schistosomiasis before. It is known that previously unexposed individuals with naive immunity are most likely to get heavy infections with accompanying severe allergic manifestations.2 The allergic reactions in the Mwanza group were therefore attributed to Katayama syndrome in acute schistosomiasis.1–3 However, the unusual eye reactions, for which Phosphoprotein phosphatase there was no specific explanation, were atypical and had not been described before in the literature.1–5 Symptoms coincided with the production of schistosome eggs into the blood stream, from approximately 6 weeks after exposure to cercariae in the lake water. The high antibody titers and marked eosinophilia indicated a heavy infectious dose of cercariae on contact with the contaminated lake water. The yield of S. mansoni eggs in stool samples was low because the infection was still in a relatively early phase; therefore, a serological test was the

most appropriate at this stage.2 Antibodies are known to appear when the allergic manifestations are still present.6 The individual who tested negative for bilharzia antibodies despite swimming had grown up in the locality of Lake Victoria, suggesting a probable acquired immunity or innate resistance. All patients seen at CTTM and positive for bilharzia by stool or antibody tests were treated using praziquantel at a dose of 40 mg/kg daily for 4 days. Those with allergic manifestations were, in addition, treated with prednisolone at a dose of 0.5 to 0.8 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. The infection rate of nearly 100% (66/67) among those who had been in the lake justified the treatment of all the remaining individuals who had swum, even in the absence of laboratory testing.

1a and b) When looking through the channel, the substituted isol

1a and b). When looking through the channel, the substituted isoleucine residue appears to extend further into the channel, potentially obstructing the passage of JQ1 price substrate to the active site (Fig. 1c and d). Site-directed mutants were constructed as indicated in Table 2 in a plasmid containing genes nifB2S2U2H2D2K2 using the Quikchange Site-Directed Mutagenesis kit (Stratagene) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The plasmids were sequenced to confirm that the desired mutations were present and that no other mutations were introduced, and a c. 5.5-kb fragment from pRL2948a containing the mobilization site, oriT, and the sacB gene (for

sucrose selection of double recombinants) was inserted to create mobilizable

plasmids. These were conjugated into A. variabilis strain JE21, a nif2 region deletion mutant in which the nifU2H2D2 region, including the NifD2 α-75 and α-76 residues, was replaced with a neomycin resistance gene (NmR) cassette (Fig. 2b) (Thiel et al., 1997). Double recombinants were selected by plating on AA media KU-60019 cell line supplemented with 10% sucrose (Cai & Wolk, 1990). DNA sequencing of PCR products amplified from the nif2 region of the putative double-recombinant strains using primers NifD2seq38 and NifD2seq10 (Table 2) showed a wild-type version of the nif2 region with the exception of the designed point mutations (Fig. 2). Attempts to amplify the NmR cassette via PCR in the double-recombinant replacement strains PW350, PW253, and PW357 yielded no product, indicating that the replacement had

fully segregated and no copies of the parental JE21 genome remained (data not shown). Proton, acetylene, and dinitrogen reduction activities were analyzed for the wild-type and mutant strains. Cultures were grown in AA/8 medium supplemented with 5.0 mM fructose, 5.0 mM NH4Cl and 10 mM N-Tris (hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, pH 7.2, at 30 °C with illumination of 90–100 μE m−2 s−1 as described previously (Thiel et al., 1995). Cells were washed three times in AA/8 and resuspended in AA/8+50 mM fructose and 50 μM 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) to inhibit oxygen production from photosystem aminophylline II. Cells (10 mL) at an OD720 nm between 0.2 and 0.3 in capped, 18-mL Hungate tubes (Bellco) were sparged for 10 min with either argon or nitrogen using a 3-in hypodermic needle as an inlet port, with a second, smaller needle as an outlet port, and shaken at 30 °C with illumination at 90–100 μE m−2 s−1. The Nif2 nitrogenase was induced within 2 h of nitrogen step down, reaching maximal activity within 4–5 h (data not shown). At 5.5 and 7 h, 250-μL samples of headspace gas were analyzed for H2 as described previously (Weyman et al., 2008).

HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts < 300 cells/μL should r

HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts < 300 cells/μL should receive three doses of HAV vaccine over 6–12 months instead of the

standard two. 6.1.11 Where the pre-cART CD4 cell count is < 500 cells/μL, cART should be continued postpartum if HBV co-infection exists because of the increased risk of HBV progressive disease. Grading: 1B 6.1.12 Where the pre-cART CD4 cell count is > 500 cells/μL, transaminases are normal, HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL KU-57788 cost and there is minimal or no fibrosis, patients should be given the option to continue tenofovir-based ART or to stop all ART. Grading: 1C 6.1.13 If a decision is taken to discontinue therapy, careful monitoring of liver function is imperative. Grading: 2D 6.1.14 Where the CD4 cell count is > 500 cells/μL and there is HBV viraemia and evidence of liver inflammation or fibrosis, cART containing tenofovir and emtricitabine should be continued.

Grading: 2C 6.1.15 Hepatitis flares that selleck inhibitor occur after cART cessation should be treated by resumption of active anti-HBV treatment before significant liver dysfunction occurs. Grading: 2D The decision to continue ART or not postpartum depends on whether cART was indicated for maternal health and the level of HBV-related hepatic activity/fibrosis. There is consensus that all persons with active (HBsAg-positive and/or HBV DNA-positive) co-infection should receive ARVs if their CD4 cell count is < 500 cells/μL [176, 199]. In those women with CD4 cell counts of > 500 cells/μL with a baseline HBV DNA > 2000 IU/mL and/or evidence of fibrosis or inflammation, HBV treatment should be continued because of the risk of progressive liver disease if discontinued. Women with pre-cART CD4 cell counts > 500 cells/μL who received cART to prevent MTCT and who are not HBV-viraemic (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL) nor have evidence of established liver disease should be given

the option of discontinuing cART. Regular monitoring is essential. The management of HBV post partum as per the scenarios above is as for non-pregnant HIV co-infected adults [191]. Inflammatory flares, which may be severe, particularly in persons with cirrhosis can occur as a result of viral escape and HBV viraemia, if drugs with anti-HBV activity are stopped. In an RCT comparing lamivudine with placebo Racecadotril for reducing HBV MTCT in patients with HBV mono-infection, an immediate increase in HBV DNA levels was observed on discontinuation of lamivudine postpartum [201]. Similarly, hepatitis flares among HIV/HBV co-infected patients have been reported upon the discontinuation of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir. In the Swiss HIV observational cohort, liver enzyme elevation occurred in 29% of patients who discontinued lamivudine and in 5% this was severe with three patients presenting with fulminant hepatitis [202] at a median time of 6 weeks after discontinuation.

In normal conditions of cell proliferation, PCNA and cyclin A exp

In normal conditions of cell proliferation, PCNA and cyclin A expression is limited to a few cells in the basal layer [48,49]. In our study, PCNA and cyclin A were strongly http://www.selleckchem.com/products/NVP-AUY922.html up-regulated in the basal as well as in the suprabasal layers of the drug-treated tissue at 2 and 4 days post treatment. These results suggest two possibilities. First, enhanced expression of PCNA and cyclin A indicates the activation of wound healing pathways to counteract drug-induced tissue damage. Enhanced expression of cytokeratins 10 and 6 in drug-treated rafts also supports this argument. Secondly, drug treatments deregulated the cell proliferation and

differentiation pathways, resulting in abnormal proliferation and epithelial repair, which could make the oral tissue more susceptible to the development of oral complications observed in HIV-infected patients taking this drug. Further, increased expression and altered expression patterns of cell proliferation markers, including cytokeratins 5 and Y-27632 mw 14, PCNA and cyclin A, indicate that the drug induces

a hyperproliferative environment in the tissue, which could make it more susceptible to the establishment of opportunistic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Previous studies have shown a significant increase in the development of HPV-positive lesions in HIV-infected patients taking HAART, including protease inhibitors [5,50,51]. In summary, in the present study we found that lopinavir/ritonavir severely inhibited the growth of gingival tissue when the drug was present throughout the growth period. TEM observations revealed that the tissue integrity of desmosomes was compromised in lopinavir/ritonavir-treated gingival tissues. Further, lopinavir/ritonavir treatments changed the expression pattern of

cytokeratins 5, 14, 10 and 6, PCNA and cyclin A over time. Taken together, these data suggest that this drug compromised tissue integrity and deregulated the differentiation and cell cycle/proliferation pathway in human gingival tissue. The present results are consistent with those of our previous study in which amprenavir treatments inhibited epithelial growth, and deregulated Resveratrol the differentiation and proliferation pathway in human gingival tissue [20]. Our previous studies with amprenavir and the current work with lopinavir/ritonavir showed similar changes in differentiation and proliferation markers following treatment. These results suggest that the two protease inhibitors may deregulate gingival epithelial growth and differentiation using similar mechanisms. However, the adverse impact of lopinavir/ritonavir on tissue growth and integrity was more severe than that of amprenavir treatments. Identification of specific pathways affected by protease inhibitors will further our understanding of how this class of drugs compromise gingival tissue integrity and deregulate the differentiation and cell cycle/proliferation pathways.

The growth curve of S aureus ATCC 29213 is shown in Fig 1 We f

The growth curve of S. aureus ATCC 29213 is shown in Fig. 1. We found that 1/16 × MIC, 1/8 × MIC, and 1/4 × MIC of licochalcone A had no obvious AZD3965 purchase effects on the growth of S. aureus. Although S. aureus grew in the presence of 1/2 × MIC of licochalcone A, the growth velocity was much slower, and after 30 min, the OD value was only 51.5% of that of the control culture. However, after 360 min of licochalcone A treatment, there was no significant difference in the OD value among all the cultures. The secretion of two major enterotoxins (SEA and SEB) by S. aureus, when exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of licochalcone A, was analysed in the study; both MSSA ATCC 29213 and MRSA strain 2985 were investigated. As shown

in Fig. 2, the addition of licochalcone A reduced the secretion of SEA and SEB in a dose-dependent manner. Growth in the presence of 1/16 × MIC licochalcone A led to a measurable reduction

in SEA and SEB secretion; at 1/2 × MIC, no immunoreactive protein could be detected in cultures of ATCC 29213 and MRSA 2985. The proteolytic activity of the cultures was determined to confirm whether the reduction of SEA and SEB secretion by S. aureus was due to an increase in protease secretion induced by licochalcone A. There was no significant effect on protease secretion by ATCC 29213 or MRSA 2985 cultured with 1/2 × MIC of licochalcone A (data not shown). It is well known that among the proteins released, enterotoxins are the most important exotoxins secreted by S. aureus that could act as superantigens, stimulating T cells to release proinflammatory cytokines and stimulating T-cell proliferation click here (Balaban & Rasooly, 2000). Therefore, in this study, a TNF release assay and a murine T-cell proliferation assay were performed to clarify the biological relevance of the reduction in SEA and SEB secretion caused by licochalcone A. As expected, the culture supernatants of S. aureus grown in the presence of graded subinhibitory concentrations of licochalcone A elicited much lower TNF-α production by spleen cells (Fig. 3) and stimulated a significantly lower level of T-cell

proliferation (Fig. 4). In addition, licochalcone A itself did not induce TNF release or stimulate T-cell activation at 1 × MIC or 2 × MIC concentrations. Apparently, licochalcone A reduced the TNF-inducing and T-cell-activating activities in a (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate dose-dependent manner. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the transcriptional level of sea, seb, and agrA after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations of licochalcone A. As shown in Fig. 5, licochalcone A markedly decreased the transcription of sea, seb, and agrA in S. aureus strains ATCC 29213. When cultured with 1/2 × MIC of licochalcone A, the transcriptional levels of sea, seb, and agrA in strain ATCC 29213 were decreased by 6.2-, 7.6-, and 4.2-fold, respectively. The investigated genes were affected by licochalcone A at the transcriptional level in a dose-dependent manner.

, 2005; Fig 1) The VTA was further subdivided along its rostroc

, 2005; Fig. 1). The VTA was further subdivided along its rostrocaudal

extent because of previous reports of functional specificity in rats and mice (Olson et al., 2005; Ikemoto, 2007) and a relative lack of region-specific analysis in the hamster. Rostral sections were defined as having TH cells adjacent to the fasciculus retroflexus prior to the onset of the interpeduncular nucleus; caudal sections were defined as having interpeduncular nucleus present prior to the medial lemniscus merging with the cerebral peduncle; tail sections were defined as having a rounded interpeduncular nucleus prior to the oral part of the pontine nuclei (Fig. 1). Upon completion of microscopic inspection and analysis, similar effects of age and swab exposure

were found in Decitabine mouse the rostral and caudal portions of each VTA subregion; therefore, data from rostral and caudal IF, PN and PBP sections were combined within subregion for statistical analysis and presentation here. Anatomically matched tissue sections throughout the extent of each region of interest (2–5 sections per subregion, depending on size) were selected at INK128 4× magnification. In the Acb, Me and VMH, subregion contours were manually traced bilaterally according to the atlas and cytoarchitecture in Nissl-stained sections and then overlaid 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase onto corresponding immunohistochemically treated tissue sections for cell counting. In the mPFC, 600 × 600 μm boxes were placed in the mPFC relative to the medial brain edge and corpus callosum. In the hypothalamus, boxes were drawn to surround all orexin-ir cells medial or lateral to the lateral edge of the fornix in immunohistochemically treated tissue sections. In the VTA, contours were drawn unilaterally in immunohistochemically treated tissue sections. Cell counts were made within a contour by a single experimenter blind to hamster treatment with an UPlanSApo 40 ×  (0.9NA)

objective on an Olympus BX51 microscope under brightfield illumination using Neurolucida (version 7; Microbrightfield, Williston, VT, USA). All quantification was performed on double-labeled immunohistochemically treated tissue; cells were considered Fos-ir if they had a distinct nucleus with visible puncta stained dark red-brown and TH- or orexin-ir if the cytoplasm was stained gray-blue. In all regions, single-labeled Fos-ir cells were counted; the number of Fos-ir cells within each subregion contour was divided by the area of that contour to create a measure of cell density within a section. These density data control for any change in subregion area with age, and generally detect similar effects of treatment as do cell count data.

The authors thank Mrs J Jacobson for editorial assistance The a

The authors thank Mrs J. Jacobson for editorial assistance. The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest. “
“We describe an allergic reaction to both mouse C646 molecular weight brain-derived BIKEN and Vero cell-derived IXIARO Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines in a single traveler. In the absence of the stabilizers and murine proteins in the BIKEN vaccine, a common factor in both vaccines is likely to be responsible, possibly JE virus antigen itself. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia.[1] Less than 1% of humans infected with JE virus develop clinical disease, yet up to 30,000 symptomatic cases of JE are still reported annually and this

figure is probably an underestimate.[2] JE has a case-fatality rate of 20%–30%, and of those surviving, as many as 25%–50% may suffer from long-term neurologic or psychiatric sequelae.[2] There is no curative treatment for symptomatic JE and in endemic countries vaccination remains an important public health priority. The risk for travelers from nonendemic countries is estimated to

be in the region of one case per million travelers.[1] However, the risk for those staying in rural areas for long periods is estimated to be similar to that of the susceptible resident population and is considered an indication for vaccination.[2] Two JE vaccines have been available for use in the UK: an inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine (JE-VAX/BIKEN [JE-MB]) and an inactivated Vero cell culture-derived vaccine (IXIARO [JE-VC]). An adverse safety profile and multiple reports of moderate to severe Venetoclax research buy hypersensitivity-type reactions associated with vaccination led to the cessation of JE-MB production by one manufacturer in 2006 (Sanofi Pasteur MSD), although this continues in Korea (Green Cross).[2, 3] JE-MB was prepared by intracerebral inoculation of neonatal Exoribonuclease mice with JE Nakayama-NIH strain.[4] Adverse events have been estimated to occur at a rate of 1–17 per 10,000 vaccines and included generalized urticaria,

angioedema, and respiratory distress.[5] These reactions have been attributed to the use of gelatin or thimerosal stabilizers or residual murine neural proteins, although none has been proven causative.[1, 5] The WHO placed a high priority on the development of new vaccines and in 2009 the JE-VC (IXIARO) vaccine completed Phase III trials. This vaccine is an inactivated, alum adjuvanted vaccine, manufactured in cultured Vero cells from the SA14-14-2 strain, and is formulated in serum-free medium without gelatin, thimerosal, or other stabilizers.[6] Noninferiority to the JE-MB vaccine by immunogenicity and antibody titers was demonstrated with a favorable safety profile.[7] Adverse events were generally mild, and this vaccine has replaced JE-MB vaccine in clinical use in adults and is close to doing so for children.[7] We describe a case of allergic reaction to both the JE-MB (BIKEN) and the JE-VC (IXIARO) vaccines in one patient.

We wish to understand the evolution of BXW and the genetic basis

We wish to understand the evolution of BXW and the genetic basis for the differing host specificities between Xcm, a pathogen of banana, and its close relative Xvv, a pathogen of sugarcane. Genetic differences may also reflect adaptations for epiphytic fitness and for dispersal, perhaps via insect vectors (Tinzaara et al., 2006; Mwangi et al., 2007; Shimelash et al., 2008) rather than virulence factors per se. Recent developments in DNA-sequencing technology provide opportunities

for rapid and cost-effective comparative genomics studies PLX4032 in vitro (MacLean et al., 2009). We used the ‘Next Generation’ Illumina Solexa GA technology (Bentley et al., 2008) to generate draft genome sequences for banana-pathogenic Xcm NCPPB 4381 (Xcm 4381) and for the closely related Xvv NCPPB 702 (Xvv 702), which is not pathogenic on banana. Sequence analysis revealed several genetic differences between these two strains

that might be important for host specificity, virulence and EPZ-6438 order epiphytic fitness, including differences in the repertoires of secreted and translocated effector proteins, type IV pili (TFP) and enzymes for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Xcm 4381 was originally isolated from banana in Uganda 2005. Xvv 702 was originally isolated from sugarcane in Zimbabwe in 1959. We obtained both strains from the National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria (NCPPB) at the Food and Environmental Research Agency (FERA, York, UK). Genomic DNA was prepared from cultures grown in NYGB (Nitrogen Yeast Glycerol Broth) medium using a Puregene Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Gentra Systems Inc., Minneapolis) and sequenced using the Illumina GA sequencing system. Illumina

sequencing of genomic DNA and sequence assembly were performed as described previously (Studholme et al., 2009). We used maq (Li et al., 2008), blast (Altschul et al., 1990) and mummer (Delcher et al., 2002) for sequence alignment of short reads, contigs and whole genomes, respectively, and cgview (Stothard & Wishart, 2005) for visualizing the alignments. splitstree (Huson, 1998) was used to build and draw phylogenetic trees. We deposited the draft genome data in GenBank under accession numbers ACHT00000000 (Xcm 4381) and ACHS00000000 (Xvv 702). We generated 5 052 905 pairs of 36-nucleotide reads from Xcm 4381; that is a Sclareol total of 363 809 160 nucleotides, representing approximately 72 times 5 megabases, the typical genome size for Xanthomonas species. From Xvv 702, we generated 2 913 785 pairs of 36-nucleotide reads; that is a total of 209 792 520 nucleotides, representing approximately 42 times the expected genome size of 5 megabases. We assembled the Illumina data using the velvet short-read assembly software (Table 1). The genome sequences of Xcm 4381 and Xvv 702 shared significantly greater nucleotide identity with each other than with the genome of any other sequenced Xanthomonas genome (Table 2).