Circumstantial evidence suggests that the above-cited principles apply to both fruit flies and their parasitoids when native forests in this region become increasingly fragmented. Reductions in fruit fly parasitoid species richness
appear to be associated with habitat loss (Table 4). In the Apazapan site, where most of the native forest survives in small isolated patches and wild fruit fly hosts for parasitoids are rare, only the two most widespread parasitoid species occur whereas a six-species complex is found in a similar area, the Llano Grande site, where many fruit fly hosts are still present in larger contiguous areas. Parasitoid abundance is 96 % lower in the highly perturbed site (Lopez et al. 1999). Table 4 The abundance of tephritid parasitoids sampled during 4 years in 15 wild and cultivated plant species Bindarit cost in Central Veracruz, Mexico (modified from Lopez et al. 1999) Study site Parasitoid species N (individuals per 1,000 fruit) Parasitoid dominance at each site click here (percentage
of all parasitoids recovered) Llano grande (undisturbed area) Doryctobracon areolatus 5,864 52.60 Utetes anastrephae 5,140 46.11 Diachasmimorpha longicaudata 78 0.70 Opius hirtus 36 0.32 Aganaspis pelleranoi 22 0.20 Doryctobracon crawfordi 7 0.03 Total 11,147 100.00 Apazapan (disturbed area) Doryctobracon areolatus 437 96.90 Utetes
anastrephae 14 3.10 Total 451 100.00 All are opiine braconids, except for the figitid Aganaspis pelleranoi. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata is an exotic species Selective logging In addition Dichloromethane dehalogenase to widespread forest fragmentation, the selective cutting of indigenous trees used by various Anastrepha species, and ultimately their parasitoids, degrades the potential of forests to provide ecological services to agriculture. For example, T. mexicana (false mahogany) is both an important parasitoid multiplier plant and a highly valuable timber tree and source of veneer wood. It is subject to heavy exploitation without replanting. In the past, government programs in Mexico mandated the removal of wild fruit fly host plants on the unproven assumption that such removals would lower pest fly densities. Such practices contradict current governmental efforts to protect biodiversity (CONABIO 2008). For example, Spondias PLX3397 cell line radlkoferi Donn. Sm., a native host plant of A. obliqua that can produce hundreds even thousands of parasitoids annually, cannot be legally cut or removed in Mexico (NOM 059-ECOL-2001). However, farmers do not necessarily follow this change in policy and local knowledge of the potential pest management value of such trees is limited or completely lacking.