Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90: 1272-9 “
“Recently a simple recipe

Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90: 1272-9.”
“Recently a simple recipe has been developed to prepare

Ag nanoparticles in a TiO2 matrix Okumu , [J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094305 (2005)] and Dahmen , [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011923 (2006)]. In this scheme, silver nanoparticles are formed in a TiO2 matrix by sputtering a thin silver film sandwiched between TiO2 layers, followed by an annealing process. To determine the formation mechanism of noble metal nanoparticles in the TiO2 matrix, we compare the behavior of Ag with two similar noble metals, gold and copper. The formation of metal nanoparticles in the TiO2 matrix is investigated using a combination of techniques including x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectance, and optical spectroscopy. Despite the similarity of the three noble metals, no nanoparticles are formed from Cu and Au. This is in striking contrast to the behavior observed for Ag. The difference Geneticin nmr can be explained by a three step process, which involves oxidation of the metal, dissociation of the metal check details oxide upon annealing, and metal aggregation to form nanoparticles. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3478710]“
“Objectives: To determine whether caveolin-1 expression is associated with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and

to better understand the pathogenesis of BPS/IC. Methods: The study population was composed of 19 women with BPS/IC and 7 healthy women as controls. Midstream urine specimens were collected before cystoscopy and cold cup bladder biopsies were obtained from the trigone of the bladder. Caveolin-1 protein expression was determined by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis in cases and controls, using a rabbit polyclonal antibody against caveolin-1. chi(2) test and Student’s t test were used in the statistical analysis. Results: A statistical difference of caveolin-1 protein expression was observed between BPS/IC and healthy controls (p < 0.05, chi(2) test). Western blot analysis showed that the GS-1101 research buy mean relative integrated density value of caveolin-1

in (BPS/IC) patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.001, Student’s t test). Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrate that there is a relationship between the raised levels of caveolin-1 expression and BPS/IC. This preliminary study may provide a basis for further investigation of the role of caveolin-1 in the pathogenesis of BPS/IC. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A nonvacuum and low temperature process for passivating transparent metal oxides based thin-film transistors is presented. This process uses the epoxy-based SU-8 resist which prevents device degradation against environmental conditions, vacuum or sputtering surface damage. The incorporation of SU-8 as a passivation layer is based on the ability of this polymer to provide features with high mechanical and chemical stability.

Flecainide and beta-blocker use suppressed incessant VT and defib

Flecainide and beta-blocker use suppressed incessant VT and defibrillator-induced storming. (PACE 2012;XX:e1e4)”
“Using the transfer matrix method and Airy function, the spin-dependent tunneling through the ZnMnSe/ZnSe/ZnBeSe structure was investigated theoretically. The electron tunneling determined by the applied bias, external magnetic field, and spin orientations exhibited some interesting and complex features. It was found that the magnetic field could suppress the spin-up current, but enhance the spin-down current. Furthermore the spin-flip of current could

be realized by changing the applied bias slightly. S3I-201 manufacturer Therefore, it can be believed that our structure could behave as a good spin-filter. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3658852]“
“The association between pretransplant serum albumin concentration and post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients is unclear. We hypothesized that in transplant-waitlisted hemodialysis patients, lower serum albumin concentrations are associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. Linking the 5-year patient data of a large dialysis organization (DaVita) to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we identified 8961 hemodialysis patients who underwent first kidney transplantation. FAK inhibitor Mortality or graft failure and delayed graft function

(DGF) risks were estimated by Cox regression (hazard ratio [HR]) and logistic regression (Odds ratio [OR]), respectively. Epigenetics inhibitor Patients were 48 +/- 13 years old and included 37% women and 27% diabetics.

The higher pretransplant serum albumin was associated with lower mortality, graft failure and DGF risk even after multivariate adjustment for case-mix, malnutrition-inflammation complex and transplant related variable. Every 0.2 g/dL higher pretransplant serum albumin concentration was associated with 13% lower all-cause mortality (HR = 0.87 [95% confidence interval: 0.82-0.93]), 17% lower cardiovascular mortality (HR = 0.83[0.74-0.93]), 7% lower combined risk of death or graft failure (HR = 0.93[0.89-0.97]) and 4% lower DGF risk (OR = 0.96[0.93-0.99]). Hence, lower pretransplant serum albumin level is associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. Clinical trials to examine interventions to improve nutritional status in transplant-waitlisted hemodialysis patients and their impacts on post-transplant outcomes are indicated.”
“Transsphenoidal surgery has been well established as an effective primary treatment for tumours of the sellar region. During the dural opening, the prominent intercavernous sinus poses limitations for this approach and may contribute to incomplete tumour resections.

Based on our experience from 940 cases of conventional transsphenoidal surgery, we have developed a stepwise protocol for achieving bleeding control in 72 cases (7.

Obtained results showed that silica layers of the MMT in these PP

Obtained results showed that silica layers of the MMT in these PPCNC were intercalated, partially exfoliated, CCI-779 and uniformly dispersed in

the polypropylene matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis showed good thermal stability for the prepared PPCNC. Differential scanning calorimetric was used to investigate both melting and crystallization temperatures, as well as the crystallinity of the PPCNC samples. Results of permeability analysis showed significant increase in barrier properties of PPCNC films. Effective parameters on molecular weight and flow ability of produced samples such as Al/Ti molar ratio and H(2) concentration were also investigated. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 308-314, 2010″
“Retrospective insurance claims from the United States were analyzed to assess nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the association between AED nonadherence, seizures, and health care costs in elderly persons with epilepsy. Inclusion criteria were: age >= P505-15 in vivo 65, epilepsy diagnosis between I January 2000 and 31 June 2006, >= 2 AED prescriptions, and insurance enrollment for >= 6 months pre- and >= 12 months post-AED initiation. Adherence was evaluated using the medication possession ratio (MPR), with MPR < 0.8 defining nonadherence. Per-patient

outcomes were evaluated over 12 months post-AED initiation. Of 1278 patients identified, 41% were nonadherent. Seizure, defined by epilepsy-related inpatient or emergency department

admission, occurred in 12.1% of nonadherers versus 8.2% of adherers selleck chemicals (P = 0.0212). Nonadherers had higher inpatient (+$872, P = 0.001), emergency department (+$143, P = 0.0008), other outpatient ancillary (+$1741, P = 0.0081), and total health care (+$2674, P = 0.0059) costs. AED adherence among elderly patients with epilepsy is suboptimal and associated with increased seizures and health care costs. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In situ optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the temporal and spatial behavior of laser induced plasmas in the laser-furnace synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A graphite composite target located within a sealed quartz tube with a chemical stoichiometric composition of 95:4:1 at. wt % of carbon, yttrium, and nickel, respectively, was ablated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser delivering colinear, focused laser pulses of 1064 and 532 nm temporarily separated by 20 ns. The ablation process was done at a furnace temperature of 1273 K in a flow of argon gas at either 150 or 200 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The pressure was varied (100, 400, and 600 Torr) for each gas flow setting. The temporal and spatial behavior of the emission intensity associated with C-2 Swan bands (d (3)Pi(g)-a (3)Pi(u)) was investigated and found to be influenced by the pressure and flow rate of the argon gas.

Methods: Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies con

Methods: Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. The average response rate was selleck chemicals 73%. Lipid profile (with laboratory cross-validation), glucose level, blood pressure, waist circumference, height, and weight were measured and standard questionnaires administered. Age-standardized prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension,

dyslipidemia, and obesity in the European population were calculated. Furthermore, the coefficient of variation between component studies was determined for the prevalence of each risk factor.

Results: In total, 28,887 participants were included. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors were high selleckchem blood pressure (47% in men, 39% in women), total cholesterol >= 250 mg/dL (43% and 40%, respectively), obesity (29% and 29%, respectively), tobacco use (33% and 21%, respectively), and diabetes (16% and 11%, respectively). Total cholesterol >= 190 and >= 250 mg/dL were the respective minimum and maximum coefficients of variation (7%-24% in men, 7%-26% in women). Average concordance in lipid measurements between laboratories was excellent.

Conclusions: Prevalence of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco use and diabetes is high. Little variation was observed between autonomous communities in the population

aged 35-74 years. However, presence of the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors in the Canary Islands, Extremadura and Andalusia was greater than the mean of the 11 studies. (C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana,S. L. All rights reserved.”
“West Nile virus has evolved in concert with its expansion across North America, but little is known about the evolutionary dynamics

of the virus on local scales. We analysed viral nucleotide sequences from mosquitoes collected in 2005, 2006, and 2007 from a known transmission ‘hot spot’ in suburban Chicago, USA. Within this approximately 11 x 14 km area, the viral envelope gene has increased LB-100 clinical trial approximately 0.1% yr(-1) in nucleotide-level genetic diversity. In each year, viral diversity was higher in ‘residential’ sites characterized by dense housing than in more open ‘urban green space’ sites such as cemeteries and parks. Phylodynamic analyses showed an increase in incidence around 2005, consistent with a higher-than-average peak in mosquito and human infection rates that year. Analyses of times to most recent common ancestor suggest that WNV in 2005 and 2006 may have arisen predominantly from viruses present during 2004 and 2005, respectively, but that WNV in 2007 had an older common ancestor, perhaps indicating a predominantly mixed or exogenous origin.

This study is one of the first reports referring to ICC and

This study is one of the first reports referring to ICC and

BP with the use of Luvoni and Grioni formulas for predicting the parturition time in dogs of different body weight in clinical practice conditions. The research material consists of 70 clinically healthy pregnant bitches of 27 breeds and cross-breeds. Bitches were divided into 4 groups according to their body weight. In each of the bitches, ultrasonographic examination of pregnancy was performed at least twice (ICC and BP measurements). Parturition dates for dogs with a body weight over 25kg were calculated based on formulas intended for the group of medium dogs. It was caused by the lack of appropriate formulas for these groups see more of dogs. The predicting parturition dates were compared with the actual dates of delivery provided by the bitch owners. Generally, the results obtained in this study are very encouraging and similar or even better than those published by other authors using foetometric measurements. In our research, when comparing the effectiveness of predicting the delivery date based on foetometric formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (), it was proved that in all groups of dogs, even those over 25kg, ICC and BP measurements at both accuracy levels were characterized

similar PXD101 reliability.”
“Objectives and design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to compare clinical outcomes between endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) and surgery.

Methods: BMN 673 research buy We searched MEDLINE and Scopus from 2000 to August 2011 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing EVLA, RFA, UGFS, and surgery or combinations of these for treatment of varicoses. Differences in clinical outcomes were expressed as pooled risk ratio and unstandardised mean difference for dichotomous and continuous outcomes, respectively. Methodological

quality was assessed using Cochrane tools.

Results: Twenty-eight RCTs were included. The primary failure and clinical recurrences were not significantly different between EVLA and RFA versus surgery with the pooled RR of 1.5 (95%CI:0.7, 3.0) and 1.3 (95%CI:0.7, 2.4) respectively for primary failure, and, 0.6 (95%CI:0.3, 1.1) and 0.9 (95%CI:0.6, 1.4) respectively for clinical recurrences. The endovenous techniques had advantages over surgery in lowering wound infections (RR = 0.3 (95%CI:0.1, 0.8) for EVLA), haematoma (RR = 0.5 (95%CI:0.3, 0.8) and 0.4 (95%Cl:0.1, 0.8) for EVLA and RFA), and return to normal activities or work (mean differences = -4.9 days (95%Cl:-7.1,-2.7) for RFA).

Conclusions: The primary failure and recurrence in EVLA and RFA were non-significantly different compared with surgery. However, they had lower haematoma, less wound infection, less pain and quicker return to normal activities. (C) 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery.

Conclusions-Rare nonsynonymous variants identified in DCM subject

Conclusions-Rare nonsynonymous variants identified in DCM subjects also present at very low frequencies in public databases are likely relevant for DCM. Allele frequencies >0.04% are of GDC-0068 in vivo less certain pathogenicity, especially if identified in sporadic cases, although this cutoff should be viewed as preliminary. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:167-174.)”
“Utilizing metal-vanadium oxide (VO2)-semiconductor capacitor device structures, we have investigated the temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric and ac conductance responses of vanadium oxide thin films that undergo metal-insulator transition (MIT). In both metallic and insulating regimes, VO2-based devices

showed large tunabilities as high as similar to 95% and similar to 42%-54%, respectively. The frequency AZD9291 concentration dependence of capacitance and ac conductance displays power-law behavior with respect to temperature and applied voltage over a broad range. Low-frequency dispersion in dielectric properties was also observed and their onset frequency varies across the MIT from similar to 0.5 MHz in insulating state to similar to 50 kHz in metallic state. The results are of potential relevance to utilizing functional oxides in electronic devices.”
“Mechanical properties such as tensile and impact strength behavior of teak wood flour (TWF)-filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were evaluated at 0-0.32 volume fraction (Phi(f))

Bafilomycin A1 of TWF. Tensile modulus and strength initially increased up to Phi(f) = 0.09, whereas a decrease is observed with further increase in the Phi(f). Elongation-at-break and Izod impact strength decreased significantly with increase in the Phi(f). The crystallinity of HDPE also decreased with increase in the TWF concentration. The initial increase in the tensile modulus and strength was attributed to the mechanical restraint, whereas decrease in the tensile properties at Phi(f) > 0.09 was due to the predominant

effect of decrease in the crystallinity of HDPE. The mechanical restraint decreased the elongation and Izod impact strength. In the presence of coupling agent, maleic anhydride-grafted HDPE (HDPE-g-MAH), the tensile modulus and strength enhanced significantly because of enhanced interphase adhesion. However, the elongation and Izod impact strength decreased because of enhanced mechanical restraint on account of increased phase interactions. Scanning electron microscopy showed a degree of better dispersion of TWF particles because of enhanced phase adhesion in the presence of HDPE-g-MAH. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 1826-1834, 2009″
“Background-A number of single gene defects have been identified in patients with isolated or nonsyndromic congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, due to significant genetic heterogeneity, candidate gene approaches have had limited success in finding high-risk alleles in most cases.

Trypomastigote excreted-secreted

antigen-blot was a confi

Trypomastigote excreted-secreted

antigen-blot was a confirmatory method. From 161 samples, 65.84% were positive in all tests, while 34.16% presents mismatch result in at least one of the tests. All techniques tested presented false-positive and/or false-negative results as follows: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 1 had Selleck Ulixertinib more false-positive results (lower specificity), indirect immunofluorescence had the highest rate of false-negative results (lower sensitivity), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays had fewer false-negative results (higher sensitivity), while indirect hemagglutination showed no false-positive result (higher specificity). Knowing the characteristics of techniques make it possible to combine them and obtain more reliable diagnosis. Therefore, it seems useful to combine techniques for diagnosing this infection. (C) 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“The Multiple-Choice Procedure [MCP; Griffiths, R.R., Troisi II, J.R., Silverman, K., Mumford, G.K., 1993. Multiple-choice procedure: an efficient approach for investigating drug reinforcement in humans. Behav. Pharmacol. 4, 3-13; Griffiths, R.R., Rush, C.R., Puhala, K.A., 1996. Validation of the multiple-choice procedure for investigating drug reinforcement in humans. Behav. Pharmacol. 4, 3-13] was developed to investigate the relationship between drug preferences and alternative reinforcers. The current study was designed to better

characterize the relationships among reinforcer magnitude, delay associated with all alternative selleck reinforcer, and preference for alcohol among a sample of undergraduate drinkers. Participants were 27 male undergraduates, over the age of 21, who reported engaging in at least three occasions of binge drinking over the previous month. All participants took part in a single laboratory

session, during which six versions of the MCP questionnaire were administered. QNZ nmr Across the versions, participants made a total of 180 discrete choices between three amounts of alcohol (12, 24, or 36 ounces of beer: deception was used to mask the fact that 36 ounces of beer would not actually be provided during the sessions) and escalating amounts of money ($0 to $20) delivered immediately or after a one-week delay. Response on the MCP varied as a function of the amount of alcohol available and the delay associated with the alternative monetary reinforcer, with the effect of the delay diminishing as the dose of alcohol increased. Results of the current study are consistent with previous laboratory studies of choice behavior and with behavioral economic theories of substance use. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To compare the prognostic value of the pneumonia severity index and the severity score for community-acquired pneumonia (CURB-65) in predicting mortality and the need for ICU admission of patients with community-acquired pneumonia referred to our emergency department.

Through this knowledge, preventive strategies have been designed

Through this knowledge, preventive strategies have been designed and instituted, and prospective parents are counseled regarding their risk of having an affected child. Great strides selleck chemicals have been made in genetic variant identification, and genetic susceptibility to environmental exposures has been hypothesized as an etiology for congenital heart defects. Unfortunately,

similar advances in understanding have not been made regarding strategies to prevent nongenetic risk factors. Less information is available regarding the potential adverse effect of modifiable risk factors on the fetal heart. This review summarizes the available literature on these modifiable exposures that may alter the risk for congenital heart Selleck Milciclib disease. Information regarding paternal characteristics and conditions, maternal therapeutic drug exposures, parental nontherapeutic drug exposures, and parental environmental exposures are presented. Factors are presented in terms of risk for congenital heart defects as a group. These factors also are broken down by specific defect

type. Although additional investigations are needed in this area, many of the discussed risk factors present an opportunity for prevention of potential disease.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate mortality rates and risk factors for death among smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) suspects.

DESIGN: Cohort study nested within a cluster-randomised trial of community-based active case finding. Smear-negative TB suspects were followed Ulixertinib for 12 months, with home tracing where necessary. We calculated mortality rates and used regression analysis to investigate the relationship between

clinical characteristics and death.

RESULTS: Between February 2006 and June 2007, 1195 smear-negative TB suspects were followed for 1136.8 person-years. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence was 63.3%. During follow-up, 139 participants died (11.6%) and mortality rates remained high throughout; 119 (16.5%) HIV-positive individuals and 13 (3.1%) HIV-negative individuals died (HR = 5.8, 95%CI 3.3-10.4, P < 0.001). Advanced immunosuppression was the main risk factor for death among HIV-positive participants, with CD4 count < 50 cells/mu l associated with a 13-fold increased risk of death. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) was initiated by only 106 (14.7%), with long delays in accessing care.

CONCLUSION: HIV-positive smear-negative TB suspects are at high and sustained risk of death. Current guidelines for the management of HIV-infected TB suspects are limited, and this study adds to evidence that specific policies are required to promote earlier HIV and TB diagnosis and reduce delays in ART initiation.”
“Although the right ventricular (RV) myocardial performance index (MPI) usually is increased in the presence of RV dysfunction and pressure overload, debate continues over the correlation between the RV MPI and functional derangement in patients with RV pressure-overload congenital heart disease (CHD).

“Phytochemical investigations on the methanol extract of I

“Phytochemical investigations on the methanol extract of Iris germanica resulted in the isolation of a new benzene derivative, 2′-methyl-6′-hydroxy cyclohexenyl-3-methyl-1-acetophenone ether (1). Further, another known benzene derivative, isopenol (2), also afforded two known isoflavones, irisolone (3) and irisolidone (4). The structure of the new compound was determined

on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 2D-NMR experiments, while the known compounds were identified on the basis of their spectral data and existing literature evidence. The comparison of the spectral data of the irisolidone (3) with that reported for the molecule led us to revise some of the reported 1H-NMR chemical shift assignments.”
“Regenerative repair is a promising new approach in treating damaged intervertebral discs. An experimental scheme was Crenigacestat cell line established for autologous and/or allogenic repair after massive disc injury.

Disc healing was promoted in 11 animals by injecting in vitro expanded autologous/homologous

disc cells 2 weeks after stab injury of lumbar discs L1-2. The following control discs were used in our sheep injury model: L2-3, vehicle only; L3-4, injury only; L4-5, undamaged; and lumbar discs from four non-experimental animals. Disc cells were suspended in a biologically supportive albumin/hyaluronan two-component hydrogel solution that polymerizes when inserted in order to anchor cells at the injection BMS-777607 molecular weight site. The parameters studied were MRI, DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen content, histology, immunohistology for collagens type I, II and aggrecan, and mRNA expression of GAPDH, beta-actin, collagen type I, II, X, aggrecan, lubricin, and IL-1 beta.

All parameters demonstrated almost complete healing of the injured discs after 6 months, when compared with data from both the endogenous non-injured controls as well as from the healthy animals.

Sheep experience spontaneous recovery from disc injury. The process of endogenous repair can be enhanced by means of hydrogel-supported cells.”
“The antioxidant activities and the determined major components of six popular and commercially available

herb essential oils, including lavender (Lavendular angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarius officinalis), lemon (Citrus limon), grapefruit (Citrus paradise), and frankincense (Boswellia carteri), were compared. The essential oils were analysed by GC-MS and their antioxidant activities were determined by testing free radical-scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation in the linoleic acid system. The major components of the essential oils of lavender, peppermint, rosemary, lemon, grapefruit, and frankincense were linalyl acetate (28.2%), menthol (33.4%), 1,8-cineole (46.1%), limonene (64.5 and 94.2%), and p-menth-2-en-ol (34.5%), respectively. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was obtained by the lavender essential oil and limonene, with RC50 values of 2.1 +/- 0.23% and 2.1 +/- 0.04%, respectively.


Every pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) an


Every pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and burns center admitting children in England and Wales was invited to participate in a structured telephone questionnaire designed to find

out how VTE in children were being prevented. We performed a literature review of specific risk factors and management of these factors.


Only one of the 24 units surveyed had written guidelines specific for children. Four other units used modified adult guidelines in older children. In the remaining 19 units that had no written guidelines, decisions regarding AZD7762 in vivo prophylaxis were based on individual cases and consultant-led.


There is no consensus in England and Wales as to which VTE prophylactic measures should be applied in patients < 18 years of age. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines apply to adults only. Given the rarity of VTE events in children, Selleck Vactosertib it is unlikely that randomized controlled trials will provide the answer. We therefore propose that simple empirical measures be formally implemented in critically ill children to reduce the risk of developing this important but under-recognized condition.”
“Background: Erythropoietin (EPO) has been found to provide cytoprotection against acute ischemic and toxic renal tubulointerstitial injury.

This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying EPO protection while examining whether EPO provides tubulointerstitial protection in a mouse model with adriamycin (ADR)-induced tubulointerstitial injury.

Methods: Adriamycin nephropathy (AN) was induced by a single injection of ADR in the 2 experimental groups on day 0. The saline-control group and the AN-saline group were administered saline at days 7, 14, and 21, while the EPO-control group and the AN-EPO group were administered EPO at days 7, 14, and 21. Kidneys were harvested at days 14

and 28 after ADR injection to measure the expression levels of the EPO receptor (EPO-R), CD34, and phosphorylated Akt by immunohistochemistry; see more to determine the extent of apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and active caspase-3 staining; and to map the hypoxic area by pimonidazole staining.

Results: EPO-R was detected in glomerular, tubular epithelial, and endothelial cells. EPO administration significantly improved tubulointerstitial injury, decreased the number of TUNEL-positive and active caspase-3-positive cells, and increased the phosphorylated-Akt-positive area in the tubulointerstitial area without increasing the hemoglobin or hematocrit levels.

Conclusions: EPO provides renoprotection against AN by reducing apoptotic cell death and preserving peritubular capillaries, possibly by exerting pleiotropic effects independently of its hemopoietic effects.