Methods: Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. The average response rate was selleck chemicals 73%. Lipid profile (with laboratory cross-validation), glucose level, blood pressure, waist circumference, height, and weight were measured and standard questionnaires administered. Age-standardized prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension,
dyslipidemia, and obesity in the European population were calculated. Furthermore, the coefficient of variation between component studies was determined for the prevalence of each risk factor.
Results: In total, 28,887 participants were included. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors were high selleckchem blood pressure (47% in men, 39% in women), total cholesterol >= 250 mg/dL (43% and 40%, respectively), obesity (29% and 29%, respectively), tobacco use (33% and 21%, respectively), and diabetes (16% and 11%, respectively). Total cholesterol >= 190 and >= 250 mg/dL were the respective minimum and maximum coefficients of variation (7%-24% in men, 7%-26% in women). Average concordance in lipid measurements between laboratories was excellent.
Conclusions: Prevalence of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco use and diabetes is high. Little variation was observed between autonomous communities in the population
aged 35-74 years. However, presence of the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors in the Canary Islands, Extremadura and Andalusia was greater than the mean of the 11 studies. (C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana,S. L. All rights reserved.”
“West Nile virus has evolved in concert with its expansion across North America, but little is known about the evolutionary dynamics
of the virus on local scales. We analysed viral nucleotide sequences from mosquitoes collected in 2005, 2006, and 2007 from a known transmission ‘hot spot’ in suburban Chicago, USA. Within this approximately 11 x 14 km area, the viral envelope gene has increased LB-100 clinical trial approximately 0.1% yr(-1) in nucleotide-level genetic diversity. In each year, viral diversity was higher in ‘residential’ sites characterized by dense housing than in more open ‘urban green space’ sites such as cemeteries and parks. Phylodynamic analyses showed an increase in incidence around 2005, consistent with a higher-than-average peak in mosquito and human infection rates that year. Analyses of times to most recent common ancestor suggest that WNV in 2005 and 2006 may have arisen predominantly from viruses present during 2004 and 2005, respectively, but that WNV in 2007 had an older common ancestor, perhaps indicating a predominantly mixed or exogenous origin.