Cuphophyllus, ellipsoid, ovoid or oblong, rarely strangulated, mean spore Q mostly (1.3–) 1.5–1.9. Phylogenetic support Sect. Virginei (represented by C. borealis) is strongly supported as sister to the clade with most of the remaining species of Cuphophyllus in our four-gene backbone analysis (80 % MLBS; 1.0 BPP), and our Supermatrix analysis with C. lacmus (86 % MLBS). Support for sect. Virginei (represented by C. borealis and C. virgineus) is strong in our Supermatrix analysis (96 % MLBS); the darkly pigmented C. lacmus appears in a sister clade (82 % MLBS). Species included Type species: Cuphophyllus virgineus. Species Tideglusib chemical structure included based on molecular
phylogenies and morphology include C. borealis (Peck) Bon ex Courtec. (1985) and C. russocoriaceus (Berk. & Jos. K. Mill.) Bon. Cuphophyllus ceraceopallidus (Clémençon) Bon is also thought to belong in sect. Virginei based on morphology. selleck inhibitor Comments Sect. Virginei is restricted here to pale species, as in Kovalenko (1989, 1999). Deeply pigmented brown and gray-brown species with a viscid pileus [C. colemannianus (Bloxam) Bon and C. lacmus (Schumach.) ARRY-438162 supplier Bon] appear in a sister clade to the pale species in an ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished), and C. lacmus appears basal
to sect. Virginei s.s. Kovalenko in our LSU and Supermatrix analyses. In our LSU analysis, the darkly pigmented species (C. colemannianus, C. lacmus, C. subviolaceus and possibly C. flavipes), are concordant with Kovalenko’s (1989) delineation of Cuphophyllus sect. “Viscidi” (A.H. Sm. &
Hesler) Bon (nom. invalid as Smith and Hesler’s 1942 basionym lacked Cediranib (AZD2171) a Latin diagnosis, Art. 36.1). Bon (1990) treated this group as subsect. “Viscidini” (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Bon, which is similarly invalid. Papetti (1996) named a subsect. “Colemanniani” Papetti in Camarophyllus, which is also invalid (Art. 36.1). In the ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished data), C. radiatus (Arnolds) Bon] appears with C. flavipes and not near C. lacmus and C. colemannianus. The darkly pigmented species with a viscid pileus (C. colemannianus (A. Bloxam) P.D. Orton & Watling, C. lacmus, C. subviolaceus, and C. flavipes) are left unplaced here, pending further revisions to Cuphophyllus. Additional unplaced Cuphophyllus species. Cuphophyllus aurantius, C. basidiosus, C. canescens, C. cinerella, C. flavipes and C. griseorufescens. Comments Cuphophyllus flavipes is unstable in its position between analyses (sequences of four gene regions from a single collection from Japan). Similarly, the positions of C. basidiosus and C. canescens are unstable, so we have therefore left this group of species unplaced. Cuphophyllus griseorufescens from New Zealand is strongly supported as being basal in the C. basidiosus – C. canescens clade in our ITS-LSU analysis (Fig. 22).