Cuphophyllus, ellipsoid, ovoid or oblong, rarely strangulated, me

Cuphophyllus, ellipsoid, ovoid or oblong, rarely strangulated, mean spore Q mostly (1.3–) 1.5–1.9. Phylogenetic support Sect. Virginei (represented by C. borealis) is strongly supported as sister to the clade with most of the remaining species of Cuphophyllus in our four-gene backbone analysis (80 % MLBS; 1.0 BPP), and our Supermatrix analysis with C. lacmus (86 % MLBS). Support for sect. Virginei (represented by C. borealis and C. virgineus) is strong in our Supermatrix analysis (96 % MLBS); the darkly pigmented C. lacmus appears in a sister clade (82 % MLBS). Species included Type species: Cuphophyllus virgineus. Species Tideglusib chemical structure included based on molecular

phylogenies and morphology include C. borealis (Peck) Bon ex Courtec. (1985) and C. russocoriaceus (Berk. & Jos. K. Mill.) Bon. Cuphophyllus ceraceopallidus (Clémençon) Bon is also thought to belong in sect. Virginei based on morphology. selleck inhibitor Comments Sect. Virginei is restricted here to pale species, as in Kovalenko (1989, 1999). Deeply pigmented brown and gray-brown species with a viscid pileus [C. colemannianus (Bloxam) Bon and C. lacmus (Schumach.) ARRY-438162 supplier Bon] appear in a sister clade to the pale species in an ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished), and C. lacmus appears basal

to sect. Virginei s.s. Kovalenko in our LSU and Supermatrix analyses. In our LSU analysis, the darkly pigmented species (C. colemannianus, C. lacmus, C. subviolaceus and possibly C. flavipes), are concordant with Kovalenko’s (1989) delineation of Cuphophyllus sect. “Viscidi” (A.H. Sm. &

Hesler) Bon (nom. invalid as Smith and Hesler’s 1942 basionym lacked Cediranib (AZD2171) a Latin diagnosis, Art. 36.1). Bon (1990) treated this group as subsect. “Viscidini” (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Bon, which is similarly invalid. Papetti (1996) named a subsect. “Colemanniani” Papetti in Camarophyllus, which is also invalid (Art. 36.1). In the ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished data), C. radiatus (Arnolds) Bon] appears with C. flavipes and not near C. lacmus and C. colemannianus. The darkly pigmented species with a viscid pileus (C. colemannianus (A. Bloxam) P.D. Orton & Watling, C. lacmus, C. subviolaceus, and C. flavipes) are left unplaced here, pending further revisions to Cuphophyllus. Additional unplaced Cuphophyllus species. Cuphophyllus aurantius, C. basidiosus, C. canescens, C. cinerella, C. flavipes and C. griseorufescens. Comments Cuphophyllus flavipes is unstable in its position between analyses (sequences of four gene regions from a single collection from Japan). Similarly, the positions of C. basidiosus and C. canescens are unstable, so we have therefore left this group of species unplaced. Cuphophyllus griseorufescens from New Zealand is strongly supported as being basal in the C. basidiosus – C. canescens clade in our ITS-LSU analysis (Fig. 22).

6 eV Oxygen molecules can be dissociatively absorbed on the oxyg

6 eV. Oxygen molecules can be dissociatively absorbed on the oxygen vacancies induced by doping N, thereby leading to a slight shift to lower binding energy of O 1 s of TiO2 lattice oxygen (Ti-O-Ti) [18]. Figure 3 High-resolution XPS spectra. Of the (a) Ti

2p, (b) O1s, (c) N 1 s, and (d) V 2p for N-TiO2, VN0, and VN3 samples. Figure  3c shows the high-resolution XPS spectra and corresponding fitted XPS for the N 1 s region of N-TiO2, VN0, and VN3. A broad peak extending from 397 to 403 eV is observed for all samples. The center of the N 1 s peak locates at ca. 399.7, 399.6, and 399.4 eV for N-TiO2, VN0, and VN3 samples, respectively. These three peaks are higher than that of typical binding energy of N 1 s (396.9 eV) in TiN [19], indicating that the N atoms in all samples interact strongly with O atoms [20]. The binding energies of 399.7, 399.6, and 399.4 eV here are attributed to the CT99021 chemical structure oxidized nitrogen similar to NO x species, PD0332991 which means Ti-N-O linkage possibly formed on the surface of N-TiO2, VN0, and VN3 samples [21–23]. The concentrations of V and N in VN3 derived from XPS analysis were 3.38% and 4.21% (at.%), respectively. The molar ratios of N/Ti on the surface of N-TiO2 and VN3 were 2.89% and 14.04%, respectively, indicating obvious increase of N doping content by hydrothermal treatment

with ammonium metavanadate. As shown in Figure  3d, the peaks appearing at 516.3, 516.9, 523.8, and 524.4 eV could be attributed to 2p3/2 of V4+, 2p3/2 of V5+, 2p1/2 LDN-193189 research buy of V4+, and 2p1/2 of V5+[24, 25]. It was established that the V4+ and V5+ions were successfully incorporated into the crystal lattice of anatase TiO2 and substituted for Ti4+ ions. UV-vis DRS spectra analysis UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra of N-TiO2 and V, N co-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays are displayed in Figure  4.

The spectrum obtained from the N-TiO2 shows that N-TiO2 primarily absorbs the ultraviolet light with a wavelength below 400 nm. For the V, N co-doped TNAs samples of VN0.5 and VN1, the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) spectra present a small red shift of adsorption edge and a higher visible light absorbance. With the increase of co-doping amount, an obvious red shift of the absorption edge and enhanced visible light absorbance were observed 4��8C for the VN3 and VN5 samples. However, no obvious change of visible light absorbance was found for VN0, which indicates that the visible light absorbance of co-doped samples may be due to the contribution of both interstitially doped N and substitutionally doped V. Kubelka-Munk function was used to estimate the band gap energy of all samples by plotting (α ℎv)1/2 vs. energy of absorbed light. The calculated results as shown in Figure  4b indicated that the band gap energies for N-TiO2, VN0, VN0.5, VN1, VN3, and VN5 are 3.15, 3.15, 2.96, 2.92, 2.42, and 2.26 eV, respectively.

A human PPI network has been reconstructed from eight databases [

A human PPI network has been reconstructed from eight databases [19]. This network is composed of 44,223 non-redundant PPIs among 9,520 different proteins, corresponding to 30% of the human proteome (the remaining proteins have no known cellular partners and, therefore, cannot be included in this network). Interestingly, HHBV are clearly over-represented in this H-H network (134 (92%) of the total HHBV). Analysis of the HHBV-HHBV sub-network (all connected 146 HHBV proteins), which is composed of 1,977 non-redundant PPIs among different HHBV and more interconnected than the H-H network, indicated that HBV proteins have a strong tendency to interact

with highly connected cellular proteins (Figure 1B, Additional file 1, Table S4). This also suggests that HBV preferentially BMN 673 order targets host proteins already known to be engaged in protein-protein interactions. Analysis of the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma and HHBV In order to provide a global view of human proteins involved

in HCC associated with the HBV – with the aim of clarifying the relationship between HBV proteins and hepatocellular carcinoma-associated proteins (HHCC) – we also made use of NLP methods to extract literature related to HCC from PubMed. Using the LCZ696 solubility dmso keyword search [e.g., (liver cancer ""[title] OR”" hepatocellular carcinoma “”[title] OR”" Liver Neoplasm “”[title] OR”" Liver Neoplasms “”[title] AND (“” 1980/01/01 “”[PDAT] :”" 2009/01/01 “”[PDAT]))], we retrieved 19,050 related articles. Based on a combination of text mining procedures and expert curation, a total of 666 HHCC (number of PMID greater selleck kinase inhibitor than

or equal to 2) Oxalosuccinic acid were identified from 6,709 summary descriptions (Additional file 1, Table S5). Among these, nine of HHCC had more than 100 PMID references (Figure 2A). Figure 2 Analysis of the relationship between H HCC and H HBV . (A) Gene list of top nine HHCC. (B) Overlap between HHCC and HHBV. The blue area corresponds to HHBV; the yellow area, to HHCC: and the green area, to HHBV-HHCC. (C) Gene Ontology analysis of HHBV and HHBV-HHCC. Compared with HHBV, 76 proteins (HHBV-HHCC) among the HHBV (146) were also hepatocellular carcinoma-associated proteins (Figure 2B, Additional file 1, Table S6). Four HHBV-HHCC’s had more than 100 PMID references (Figure 2A). Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis The 146 HHBV could be classified into 18 mutually dependent functional sets, resulting in 17 cellular processes in 12 cellular components according to the gene ontology analysis. Accordingly, the 76 HHBV-HHCC could be classified into 14 functional sets, resulting in 16 cellular processes in eight cellular components (Additional file 1, Table S7). As shown in Figure 2C, most of the functional profiling showed transcriptional activity, DNA binding, kinase activity, signal transducer activity, cytokine activity and growth factor activity.

Of the identified proteins, CpxR and Dps (Additional File 4) are

Of the identified proteins, CpxR and Dps (Additional File 4) are those commonly associated with stress resistance. CpxR is part of the two-component regulatory system CpxAR which controls gene Proteasome inhibitor expression in response to numerous external stimuli, including those responsible for alterations in the cell envelope [22–25]. The DNA-binding protein (Dps) has shown an ability to protect several pathogenic bacteria during acid stress, as well as when subjected to various oxidative stresses [26–30]. It is produced primarily throughout stationary phase and its expression

is regulated by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS (σ38), OxyR, and IHF [31]. Dps sequesters iron, thereby limiting Fenton-catalyzed JNK inhibitor oxyradical formation, and also physically protects DNA against environmental assaults by sequestering it into a highly stable biocrystal complex [32]. Quantitative Real-time PCR Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine if the proteins upregulated in PA cultures (Dps, CpxR, SodA, RplE, and RplF) were overexpressed at the transcriptional level as well.

check details A relative quantification experiment was performed; therefore, the level of expression of each target in the PA adapted culture was compared to the level of gene expression of the identical target gene in the unadapted culture. The expression of each gene in unadapted cultures was taken to be the

basal level of expression for that particular gene (for the growth conditions used in this study) to which the expression in PA adapted cultures was compared. This method allowed the changes in gene expression of our selected targets to be carefully quantified. The relative quantification of each target gene was calculated from the data obtained using the comparative CT (ΔΔCT) method. Interestingly, qRT-PCR results did not fully coincided with all of the previously obtained proteomic results from 2 D electrophoresis (Figure 3). When compared to unadapted cultures, only two of the five targets overexpressed at the proteomic level (Dps and Fludarabine nmr CpxR) showed increased expression at the transcriptional level (p < 0.05). cpxR showed a 20.8% increase in expression in PA adapted cultures, while dps from PA adapted cultures showed a 50.7% increase in expression over that from unadapted cultures. Expression of rplE and rplF in PA adapted cultures was only 82.1% and 99.5% respectively, of those from unadapted cultures. This difference in gene expression was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Finally, sodA showed a significant decrease in expression after exposure to PA (p < 0.01). Its expression in PA adapted cultures was only 52.2% of that in unadapted cultures.

J Appl Phys 2010, 108:076101 CrossRef 17 Xu Q, Wen Z, Wu D: Bipo

J Appl Phys 2010, 108:076101.CrossRef 17. Xu Q, Wen Z, Wu D: Bipolar

and unipolar resistive switching in Zn 0.98 Cu 0.02 O films. J Phys D Appl Phys 2011, 44:335104.CrossRef 18. Hu W, Chen X, Wu G, Lin Y, Qin N, Bao D: Bipolar and tri-state unipolar resistive switching behaviors in Ag/ZnFe 2 O 4 /Pt memory devices. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101:063501.CrossRef 19. Peng P, Xie D, Yang Y, Zhou C, Ma S, Feng T, Tian H, Ren T: Bipolar and unipolar resistive switching effects in Al/DLC/W structure. J Phys D Appl Phys 2012, 45:365103.CrossRef 20. Jeong DS, Schroeder H, Waser R: Coexistence of bipolar and unipolar resistive switching behaviors in a Pt/TiO 2 /Pt stack. Electrochem Solid-State CAL-101 manufacturer Lett 2007,10(8):G51-G53.CrossRef 21. Kannan V, Senthilkumar V, Rhee JK: Multi-level conduction in NiO resistive memory device prepared by

solution route. J Phys D Appl Phys 2013, 46:095301.CrossRef 22. Yang JJ, Strukov DB, Stewart DR: Memristive devices for computing. Nat Nanotechn 2013, 8:13–24.CrossRef 23. Lee JK, Jung S, Park J, Chung SW, Roh JS, Hong SJ, Cho IIH, Kwon HI, Park CH, Park BG, Lee JH: Accurate analysis of conduction and resistive-switching mechanisms in double-layered resistive-switching memory devices. Appl Phys Lett 2012, 101:103506.CrossRef 24. Hota MK, Caraveo-Frescas JA, McLachlan MA, Alshareef HN: Electroforming-free resistive switching memory effect Crenigacestat molecular weight in transparent p-type tin monoxide. Appl Phys Lett 2014, 104:152104.CrossRef 25. Akinaga H, Shima H: Resistive random access

Doxacurium chloride memory (ReRAM) based on metal oxides. Proc IEEE 2010, 98:2237–2251.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions XCY and XHW carried out the sample preparation, participated on its analysis, performed all the analyses, and wrote the paper. JLT and HZZ provided useful suggestions and helped analyze the characterization results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) are the primary causes of Selleck ATM Kinase Inhibitor global warming. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has steadily increased owing to human activity, and this accelerates the greenhouse effect. The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 is a promising technical solution since it uses readily available sunlight to convert CO2 into valuable chemicals, such as methanol or methane, in a carbon friendly manner [1]. TiO2 is a popular catalyst for photoreduction of CO2 owing to the advantages of earth abundance, low toxicity, and chemical stability. Yet it has so far yielded only low carbon dioxide conversion rates despite using ultraviolet illumination for band gap excitations [2]. While the intrinsic idea of photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide and water (vapor) into hydrocarbon fuels is appealing, the process has historically suffered from low conversion rates.

The XRD patterns compared in Figure 4 (for NiO thin films)

The XRD patterns compared in Figure 4 (for NiO thin films)

and Figure 5 (for NiO/TZO thin films) will also demonstrate that the TZO thin films can dominate the crystalline structure of NiO thin films. The uniformity and roughness of the 100 W-deposited NiO/125 W-deposited TZO heterojunction diode were better than those of the NiO/TZO heterojunction diodes with TZO thin films deposited at other powers (not shown here). Figure 1b shows the cross-section SEM image of the 100 W-deposited NiO/125 W-deposited TZO heterojunction diode; the Al electrode and the ITO substrate electrode are also observed in Figure 1b. Cross-sectional observations of all the NiO/TZO heterojunction diodes showed that NiO thin films deposited on different TZO thin films had the same

thickness of about 180 nm, which was achieved by controlling the deposition time. However, although the PX-478 chemical structure TZO thin films were deposited in the same amount of time, they had thicknesses of about 315, 350, 380, and 450 nm as the deposition power was changed from 75 W (not shown here) to 100 W (not shown here), 125 W, and 150 W (not shown here), respectively. Figure 4 XRD patterns of NiO thin films as a function of deposition power. (a) 75 W, (b) 100 W, (c) 125 W, and (d) 150 W. Figure 5 XRD patterns of NiO/TZO heterojunction diodes as a function of deposition power of TZO thin films. (a) 75 W, (b) 100 W, (c) 125 W, and (d) 150 W. Figure 4 shows the XRD patterns of the NiO thin films deposited as a function of deposition power. No matter what deposition power was used, the only this website (200) diffraction peak was observed in the NiO thin films, and the 100 W-deposited NiO thin films had the optimal crystallization. XRD patterns of the NiO/TZO heterojunction diodes for TZO

thin films deposited at different deposition powers are shown in Figure 5. All patterns exhibited the (002) and (004) diffraction peaks Oxymatrine of the ZnO (TZO) crystallization preferential orientation along the c-axis at diffraction angles (2θ) near 34.28° and 72.58°, with a hexagonal structure; no peak characteristic of TiO2 was found. The diffraction peak revealed that a 2θ value of 36.74° corresponded to the (111) plane of the NiO thin film with a cubic structure, which was different from the check details result in Figure 4. The result in Figure5 is an important proof that as the NiO thin films is deposited on the TZO thin films with the (002) and (004) diffraction peaks, the crystalline structure of the NiO thin films will be controlled by TZO thin films. For that, the main diffraction peak is changed from the (200) plane to the (111) plane, and then the TZO thin films will dominate the crystalline structure (Figure 1a). Figure 5 also shows that both the diffraction intensity ratio of 2θ TZO(002)/2θ NiO(111) and the diffraction intensity of the TZO thin films increased with increasing deposition power.

However, the influence of TBs on the mechanical behavior of metal

However, the influence of TBs on the mechanical behavior of metal nanospheres is still unclear up to now. This paper is to investigate the deformation mechanisms in twinned

copper nanoparticles subjected to uniaxial compression. Methods Consider a face-centered-cubic (fcc) copper nanosphere with parallel (111) coherent TBs under compression, as shown in Figure 1. The twin spacing is d and the loading direction varies #Cell Cycle inhibitor randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# from [111] to indicated by a tilt angle θ between the twin plane and compressive plane. The embedded atom method (EAM) is utilized to describe the interactions between copper atoms [17], which has been widely adopted for copper crystals [18, 19]. Figure 1 Schematics of compression of twinned nanospheres. Simulation model (a) and internal twin structures (b). To simulate the compression process, a repulsive potential is employed to characterize the interaction between copper atoms and the planar indenter as [20, 21] (1) where

K is a specified force constant related to the hardness of indenter, h is the position of the compression plane, λ(z i – h) is the distance between the i-th atom and the planar indenter, H is the unit step function, and λ equals 1 for the top indenter, −1 for the bottom indenter, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations are performed using LAMMPS developed by Sandia National Laboratories. In simulations, the surface of nanosphere is free, CYTH4 except atoms adjacent to the top and bottom indenters experiencing a repulsive potential. An NVT ensemble is chosen with Ilomastat order velocity-Verlet integration and a time step of 2.0 fs, and the temperature is controlled at

10 K using a Nosé-Hoover thermostat [22, 23]. Before compression, the systems are firstly equilibrated at 10 K for about 20 ps. During compression, the top and bottom indenters simultaneously move toward the center of the sphere with a constant velocity of approximately 10 m/s, and the compression depth δ is defined as the decreasing distance between the two indenters. We fix the radius of nanosphere as 15 nm and investigate the effects of TBs on the deformation of twinned nanoparticle. The total number of atoms in simulations is about 1.2 million. The common neighbor analysis (CNA) method is utilized to analyze the defect structures inside the deformed nanosphere [24]. In this method, atoms in perfect fcc lattice are distinguished from those in hcp lattice, surface, dislocation cores and other defects. Results and discussion Firstly, we examine the influence of twin spacing in nanosphere with the loading direction perpendicular to the TBs (θ = 0°). Figure 2 shows the load response of twinned nanospheres with twin spacing d varying from 1.25 to 5.09 nm. For comparison, the load response of a twin-free nanosphere is also included. Figure 2 Load versus compression depth response of nanosphere with different twin spacing.

Alphen aan den Rijn: TNO Arbeid/Samsom, pp 107–129 Sonnentag S, Z

Alphen aan den Rijn: TNO Arbeid/Samsom, pp 107–129 Sonnentag S, Zijlstra FRH (2006) Job characteristics and off-job activities as predictors of need for recovery, well-being, and fatigue. J Appl Psychol 91:330–350CrossRef Staland-Nyman C, Alexanderson K, Hensing G (2008) Associations between strain in domestic work and self-rated health: a study of employed women in Sweden. Scand J Public Health 36:21–27. doi:10.​1177/​1403494807085307​ CrossRef Swaen GMH, Van Amelsvoort LGPM, Bültmann U, Kant IJ (2003) Fatigue as a risk factor for being injured in

an occupational accident: results from the Maastricht Cohort study. Occup Environ Med 60(Suppl I):i88–i92. doi:10.​1136/​oem.​60.​suppl_​1.​i88 CrossRef Twellaar M, Winants Y, Houkes I (2008) How healthy are Dutch general practitioners? Self-reported (mental) health among Dutch general practitioners.

Eur J Gen Pract 14:4–9. doi:10.​1080/​1381478070181491​1 CrossRef Van Amelsvoort LGPM, Kant IJ, Bültmann U, Swaen GMH (2003) Need for recovery after work and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in a working population. Occup Environ Med 60(Suppl. 1):i83–i87. doi:10.​1136/​oem.​60.​suppl_​1.​i83 CrossRef Van den Bossche SNJ, Hupkens CLH, De Ree SJM, Smulders PGW (2006) Nationale Enquête Arbeidsomstandigheden 2005: Methodologie en globale resultaten (Netherlands Working Conditions Survey 2005: methodology and overall results). Hoofddorp: TNO Work & Employment Van den Bossche SNJ, Hupkens CLH, De Ree SJM, Smulders PGW (2007) Nationale Enquête Arbeidsomstandigheden 2006: Methodologie en globale resultaten (Netherlands Working Conditions Survey 2006: NVP-BSK805 chemical structure methodology and overall results). Hoofddorp: TNO Work & Employment Van Veldhoven M (2008) Need for recovery after work: an overview of construct, measurement and research. In: Houdmont J, Leka S (eds) Occupational health psychology: European perspectives on research, education,

practice, vol III. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp 1–25 Van Veldhoven M, Broersen S (1999) Psychische vermoeidheid in de arbeidssituatie. Een verkenning op basis van gegevens verzameld door arbodiensten (Psychological fatigue at work. An exploration based on data collected by Isoconazole occupational health services). Gedrag Organ 12:347–363 Van Veldhoven M, Broersen S (2003) Measurement quality and validity of the ‘need for recovery scale’. Occup Environ Med 60(Suppl. 1):i3–i9. doi:10.​1136/​oem.​60.​suppl_​1.​i3 CrossRef Van Veldhoven M, Sluiter JK (2009) Work-related recovery opportunities: testing scale properties and validity in relation to health. Int Arch Occup Environ health. Online First. doi: 10.​1007/​s00420-009-0411-1 Van Veldhoven M, Meijman TF, Broersen JPJ, Fortuin RJ (2002) Handleiding VBBA (Manual QEEW). Amsterdam: CP-690550 mw Stichting Kwaliteitsbevordering Bedrijfsgezondheidszorg. Download 15 September 2009 from http://​www.​skbvs.​nl/​bestanden/​www.​skbvs.​nl_​20030716_​handleiding_​vbba.

J Alloys Compd 2013, 551:481–484 CrossRef Competing interests The

J Alloys Compd 2013, 551:481–484.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DGC and TJ carried out the synthesis, crystallization methodology and photocatalytic studies, participated in the morphological characterization and drafted the manuscript. MP carried out the microscopy characterization and PP2 chemical structure helped to draft the manuscript. ACC and DFH conceived of the study and participated in its design and coordination. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”

Graphene has attracted intensive interest due to its extraordinary electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties [1, 2]. Among its wide range of applications, recent studies have demonstrated that polymer nanocomposites based on graphene have resulted in dramatic improvements in the mechanical, electrical, and gas barrier properties of pristine polymers [3–6]. Homogeneous IACS-10759 dispersion of graphene in the polymer matrix is an

essential requirement to obtain the desired properties. Graphene oxide (GO) with abundant oxygen-containing groups, such as epoxy, hydroxyl, and carboxyl, can be well dispersed in a polymer matrix due to its good interaction with polymer chains [7–9]. However, the agglomeration of graphene sheets due to van der Waals forces only allows for a successful colloidal suspension within a narrow range of organic solvents. Park et al. reported that highly reduced graphene oxide was dispersed Vasopressin Receptor in organic Captisol in vivo solvents with a sum of solubility parameters (δp and δH) in the range of 13 to 29 [10]. Recently, it was reported that alkylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) exhibited good dispersion in solvents and a strong interfacial interaction with low-polar organic solvents and polymers [11–17]. GO modified with HDA showed superior dispersion up to 7 mg/mL in organic solvents with low Hansen solubility parameters, such as xylene and toluene [18]. Thus, they could be effectively used as a nanofiller even in low-polar polymers such as polyethylene [19, 20]. In this work, three alkylamines, OA, DDA, and HDA, with different alkyl chain lengths were

utilized to examine the effect of alkylamine functionalization of GO on the properties of FGO/PS composites. When the FGO/PS nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending, the FGOs were homogeneously dispersed over the PS matrix even at a high concentration in chloroform. Methods Preparation of FGO and FGO/PS nanocomposites GO was prepared by a modified Hummers method using expanded graphite (Grade 1721, Asbury Carbons, Asbury, NJ, USA) which was heated for 10 s in a microwave oven. The ratio of GO to alkylamines (CH3(CH2)7NH2, CH3(CH2)11NH2, CH3(CH2)15NH2, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was fixed at 1.0 g of GO to 0.01 mol of alkylamine. The alkylamine solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.010 mol of OA, DDA, or HDA in 30 mL of ethanol (SK Chemicals, Gyeonggi-do, Korea).

J Appl Physiol 2001, 91:1055–1060 PubMed Competing interests This

J Appl Dinaciclib price Physiol 2001, 91:1055–1060.PubMed Competing interests This study was funded by Thermos L.L.C. (Schaumburg, IL, USA). Authors’ contributions DL was the study coordinator and was involved in research design, data collection and analysis, as well as manuscript preparation. ACP and was involved in research design, analysis and manuscript preparation. SS assisted in research design. ER assisted in data analysis and manuscript development. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Selleckchem Danusertib Creatine has proven to be one of the most effective and popular

dietary supplements for resistance-trained athletes [1–3]. The form of creatine that has been most extensively studied has been creatine monohydrate (CrM) [1]. Studies Epacadostat ic50 have consistently indicated that creatine supplementation increases muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations by approximately 15-40%, enhances anaerobic exercise capacity, and increases training volume leading to greater gains in strength, power, and muscle mass [1–10]. A number of potential therapeutic benefits

have also been suggested in various clinical populations [11–17]. Studies have indicated that creatine monohydrate is not degraded during normal digestion and that nearly 99% of orally ingested creatine is either taken up by tissues or excreted in urine [18–20]. Further, no medically significant side effects have been reported in the literature [21–27]. Nevertheless, supplement manufacturers have continually Chloroambucil introduced newer forms of creatine into the marketplace [1]. These newer forms have been purported to have better physical and chemical properties, bioavailability, efficacy, and/or safety profiles than creatine monohydrate [1]. However, there is little to no evidence that any of the newer forms of creatine are more effective and/or a safer form of creatine than CrM whether ingested alone and/or in combination with other nutrients [1]. In addition, whereas the safety, efficacy, and regulatory status of CrM is clearly defined in almost all global markets; the safety, efficacy and regulatory

status of other forms of creatine present in today’s marketplace as a dietary or food supplement is less clear [1]. A buffered form of creatine (Kre-Alkalyn® [KA], All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) has been marketed as a more efficacious and safer form of creatine than creatine monohydrate [28]. According to the manufacturer’s website [28], this patented form of creatine [29] is a “buffered” or “pH-correct” form of creatine that remains more stable in the stomach, is not degraded to creatinine, and thereby has greater bioavailability. According to patent filings [29], this is accomplished by adding an alkaline powder (e.g., soda ash, magnesium glycerol phosphate, bicarbonate) to creatine (e.g., creatine monohydrate, creatine phosphate, creatine pyruvate, creatine citrate) in order to adjust the pH to a range between 7–14.