001) associated with never screened

Conclusions: Scre

001) associated with never screened.

Conclusions: Screening programs accompanied by adequate treatment options should target women at high risk for never being screened, which could decrease cervical cancer incidence and mortality.”
“Background and Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment strategy plays a critical role in ensuring maximum stone fragmentation during shockwave lithotripsy

(SWL). We aimed Liproxstatin1 to develop an optimal treatment strategy in SWL to produce maximum stone fragmentation.

Materials and Methods: Four treatment strategies were evaluated using an in-vitro experimental setup that mimics stone fragmentation in the renal pelvis. Spherical stone phantoms learn more were exposed to 2100 shocks using the Siemens Modularis (electromagnetic) lithotripter. The treatment strategies included increasing output

voltage with 100 shocks at 12.3kV, 400 shocks at 14.8kV, and 1600 shocks at 15.8 kV, and decreasing output voltage with 1600 shocks at 15.8 kV, 400 shocks at 14.8 kV, and 100 shocks at 12.3 kV. Both increasing and decreasing voltages models were run at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 1 and 2Hz. Fragmentation efficiency was determined using a sequential sieving method to isolate fragments less than 2 mm. A fiberoptic probe hydrophone was used to characterize the pressure waveforms at different output voltage and frequency settings. In addition, a high-speed camera was used to assess cavitation activity in the lithotripter field that was produced by different treatment strategies.

Results: The increasing output

voltage strategy at 1 Hz PRF produced the best stone fragmentation efficiency. This result was significantly better than the decreasing voltage strategy at 1 Hz PFR (85.8% vs 80.8%, P = 0.017) and over the same strategy at 2Hz PRF (85.8% vs 79.59%, P = 0.0078).

Conclusions: A pretreatment dose of 100 low-voltage output shockwaves (SWs) at 60 SWs/min before increasing to a higher voltage output produces the best overall stone fragmentation in vitro. These findings could lead to increased fragmentation efficiency in vivo and higher success rates clinically.”
“Pediatric spinal pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is an extremely rare tumor that merits recognition as a specific, unique entity. The C59 Wnt purchase authors present the case of an intramedullary PMA in the thoracic spinal cord of an 11-year-old boy who presented with back pain, scoliosis, and multiple lung nodules. The patient underwent T5-11 laminoplasty and near-total resection of the spinal tumor. The final pathological diagnosis was WHO Grade II PMA. The patient did well for 14 months until the tumor progressed both clinically and radiographically. A literature review focusing on the clinical characteristics, histology, and treatment of PMAs provides a better understanding of these rare lesions.

Study design Planning software has been combined with an in-hous

Study design. Planning software has been combined with an in-house finite element solver. Once the clinician has chosen the implant position on the planner, a finite element analysis automatically calculates the primary

stability. The process was designed to be as simple and fast as possible for clinical use. This paper describes application of the method to the prediction of removal torque. A preliminary validation has been performed in both polyurethane foam and sheep bone.

Results. The predicted torque is BIX01294 quantitatively equivalent to experimental values with correlation coefficients of > 0.7 in both materials.

Conclusions. This preliminary study is a first step toward the introduction of finite element models in computer-assisted selleck chemicals llc surgery. The fact that the process is fast and automatic

makes it suitable for a clinical use. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 594-603)”
“The prevalence of macrocephaly in autism spectrum disorder is reported to be much higher than in the general population, 12% to 37%. Progressive macrocephaly is even considered a warning sign for the development of autism. We evaluated the prevalence of an abnormal head circumference in children with autism in Israel and compared it with the head circumferences of children with developmental language disorder and children with normal development. We did not find a higher prevalence of macrocephaly among Israeli children with autism spectrum disorder (4.4%). Although children with autism spectrum disorder had a significantly higher rate of a head circumference above the 75th percentile compared with children with developmental language disorder, it was not significantly different compared with normal controls. We conclude that there is no increased prevalence Copanlisib order of macrocephaly in Israeli children with autism; this can

be attributed to a different genetic background.”
“Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the additive effect of resistance training (RT) to a dietary education (DE) intervention on emerging coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, concentration of apolipoproteins B (apoB) and A-I (apoA-I), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet Index scores in overweight and obese older adults.

Patients and methods: This was an ancillary study of a randomized clinical trial held in the Fall of 2008 at the University of Rhode Island. Participants were overweight or obese subjects (mean body mass index [BMI] of 31.7 kg/m(2)) randomized into two groups, one participating in DE only (n = 12) and the other participating in DE plus RT (DERT) (n = 15). The intervention involved all subjects participating in 30 minutes of DE per week for 10 weeks. Subjects in the DERT group participated in an additional 40 minutes of RT three times per week for 10 weeks.

Results: With a 6-mm threshold for positivity, the overall referr

Results: With a 6-mm threshold for positivity, the overall referral rate to optical colonoscopy was 15.3% ( 88 of 577), leading to 277 polypectomies and the removal of 103 nondiminutive adenomas. For adenomas, the per-patient positivity rates were 10.9% ( 63 of 577) and 6.8% ( 39 of 577) at the 6- and 10-mm thresholds, respectively. The prevalence of advanced neoplasia was 7.6% ( 44 of 577). Fifty-four adenomas

met advanced status, and five unsuspected cancers were detected. The advanced neoplasias identified were typically large, with a mean size of 21 mm. Potentially important selleck extracolonic findings were seen in 15.4% ( 89 of 577) of patients, with a work-up rate of 7.8% ( 45 of 577). The majority of important extracolonic diagnoses were vascular aneurysms ( n = 18). No major complications were encountered.

Conclusion: CT colonography is a safe and effective screening modality for the older population.”
“We examined the prevalence of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-like symptoms) at 7 and 18 years in a Greek birth cohort, and associated factors. Information was derived from a representative sample of 2695 Greek individuals followed-up

selleck chemicals from birth to 18 years through 3 questionnaire surveys (1983, 1990, 2001). At 7 years, the prevalence of hyperactivity was 7%, inattention 9.5%, and impulsivity 7% for all PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor children, while a significant decrease was observed at 18 years. Adverse perinatal factors, poor academic performance,

fights or quarrels with peers, comorbidity, and a higher frequency of physical punishment and accidents during childhood were found to be associated with ADHD-like symptoms at 7 years. Factors identified to be related with these symptoms at 18 years included male gender, maternal stress, smoking during pregnancy, physical punishment, and psychological problems in childhood. These longitudinal findings provide significant information for health and educational planning in Greece and other countries.”
“Objective: To understand patterns of alcohol consumption and baseline factors associated with favorable drinking patterns among HIV-infected patients.

Methods: We studied drinking patterns among HIV-infected patients with current or past alcohol problems. We assessed drinking status in 6-month intervals. Based on National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism guidelines a favorable drinking pattern was defined as not drinking risky amounts at each assessment or decreased drinking over time. All other patterns were defined as unfavorable. Logistic regression models were used to identify baseline factors associated with a favorable pattern.

Results: Among 358 subjects, 54% had a favorable drinking pattern with 44% not drinking risky amounts at every assessment, and 11% decreasing consumption over time.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-450 g) were anesthetized w

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-450 g) were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine and instrumented for closed chest cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Following a 25-min KCl-induced cardiac arrest, the animals were resuscitated by CPB with 100% oxygen. Three minutes

after successful return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), the animals received either normoxemic reperfusion (CPB with 40-50% oxygen) or hyperoxemic reperfusion (CPB with 100% oxygen) for 1 h. Post-resuscitation hemodynamics, cardiac function, mitochondrial function and immunostaining of 3-nitrotyrosine were compared between the two different treatment groups.

Results: At 1 h after ROSC, the hyperoxemic reperfusion group had a significant higher mean arterial pressure, less metabolic acidosis and better diastolic function than the normoxemic PXD101 solubility dmso reperfusion group. Cardiac mitochondria from the hyperoxemic reperfusion group had a higher respiratory control ratio (RCR) and cardiac tissue showed less nitroxidative stress compared to the normoxemic reperfusion group.

Conclusions: One hour of hyperoxemic reperfusion after

25 min of cardiac arrest in an in vivo CPB model resulted in significant short-term improvement in myocardial and mitochondrial function compared with 1 h of normoxemic reperfusion. This myocardial response may differ from previously reported post-arrest hyperoxia mediated effects following shorter arrest times. BLZ945 clinical trial (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

The overall objective of one Erismodegib of the major research programs in

the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to ‘Improve female reproductive performance’ in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared.

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of red

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of red wine polyphenols (WP) on the oxidizability of human plasma fatty acids, in particular those most involved in the inflammatory response archidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The oxidizability of the major fatty acids of plasma was determined by measuring their loss gaschromatographycally during

peroxidation kinetics induced by 2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)-dihydrochloride. The capacity of WP to scavenge 1,1,clipheny1-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, and trap total peroxyl radicals in plasma (TRAP) was also measured. WP (1.75-5 mu g/mL) inhibited DPPH, NVP-HSP990 purchase superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals and increased TRAP in a dose-dependent manner. WP (1.75 mu g/mL) significantly protected check details all plasma PUFA from peroxidation but the protection of EPA and

DNA was higher than that of AA. These results suggest that the association of WP to apolipoproteins makes EPA and DHA less accessible to hydro-soluble radicals than AA, thus providing a biochemical rationale for future ‘in vivo’ studies on the benefits to health of moderate red wine consumption. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Aims: To study the independent and combined associations of diet and cardiorespiratory fitness with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods and Results: We studied a population-based random sample of 663 men and 671 women 57-78 years of age at baseline of an ongoing randomised controlled trial. Based on a 4-day food record a diet score was created according to goals achieved (vegetables >= 400 g/day, fish >= click here 2 servings/week, fibre >= 14 g/1000 kcal, saturated fat <10 E%/day). Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 (max)) in a maximal symptom-limited bicycle

ergometer test. MetS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria.

The lowest prevalence of MetS (5%) was observed among individuals in the highest VO2 (max) tertile and achieving 3-4 dietary goals. The highest prevalence (55%) was observed among those in the lowest VO2 (max) tertile and achieving none of the dietary goals. Among individuals in the highest VO2 (max) tertile, the odds ratio of having MetS was 0.04 (95% CI 0.02-0.10) for those achieving 3-4 dietary goals, 0.07 (0.04-0.14) for those achieving 1-2 dietary goals, and 0.16 (0.07-0.37) for those achieving none of the dietary goals compared with individuals”
“Imaging studies are tests performed with a variety of techniques that produce pictures of the inside of a patient’s body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging technique based on the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone, and virtually all other internal body structures.

Results: SAMIS was closely correlated with RAMRIS for the entire

Results: SAMIS was closely correlated with RAMRIS for the entire series (r = 0.91, 0.79, and 0.94, respectively, for erosion, edema, and synovitis), as well as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (r = 0.93, 0.81, and 0.92) and those with no or unclassified arthritis (r = 0.83, 0.73, and 0.94). The time needed to assess

examination results with RAMRIS ranged from 5 to 20 minutes (13 minutes 6 3.90 [standard deviation]), whereas it ranged from 2 to 7 minutes (5 minutes +/- 1.45) with SAMIS. For each of the three features (erosion, edema, and synovitis), intraobserver agreement (RAMRIS: k = 0.67, 0.94, 0.81, respectively; SAMIS: k = 0.66, 1.0, 0.91) BI 2536 nmr and interobserver agreement (RAMRIS: k = 0.61, 0.58, 0.74, respectively; SAMIS: k = 0.59, 0.81, 0.81) were good to excellent.

Conclusion: This simplified reproducible scoring scheme could be used to monitor joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. (C) RSNA, 2010″

Wang-Landau method [F. Wang and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. E 64, 056101 (2001)] is an efficient way to calculate the density of Selleck 5-Fluoracil states (DOS) for magnetic systems, and the DOS can then be used to rapidly calculate the thermodynamic properties of the system. A technique is presented that uses the DOS for a simple Hamiltonian to create a stratified sample of configurations which are then used calculate a “”warped” DOS for more realistic Hamiltonians. This technique is validated for classical models of bcc Fe with exchange interactions of increasing range, but its real value is using the DOS for a model Hamiltonian calculated on a workstation to select the stratified set of configurations whose energies can then be calculated for a density-functional Hamiltonian. The result is an find more efficient first-principles calculation of thermodynamic properties

such as the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. Another technique uses the sample configurations to calculate the parameters of a model exchange interaction using a least-squares approach. The thermodynamic properties can be subsequently evaluated using traditional Monte Carlo techniques for the model exchange interaction. Finally, a technique that uses the configurations to train a neural network to estimate the configuration energy is also discussed. This technique could potentially be useful in identifying the configurations most important in calculating the “”warped” DOS. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565413]“
“Purpose: To assess the pain course after intraarticular injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast material admixed with anesthetic for magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the shoulder in relation to internal derangements of the shoulder.

Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study.

Conclusion Patients with ES and OS are currently managed with mu

Conclusion. Patients with ES and OS are currently managed with multiple modalities involving surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. For both histopathologies, advances in chemotherapy have led to the greatest improvements in survival over the last few decades. Neoadjuvant therapy portents the most favorable Ruboxistaurin manufacturer local control and long-term survival. En bloc surgical resection may improve overall survival

and decrease risk of recurrence.”
“The quality of interfacial adhesion of aramid/epoxy composites affects the mechanical performance of the material, and thus there is a need to improve the condition by using the ultrasound-based interfacial treatment. To do so, an ultrasonic transducer has been developed and evaluated under various operational conditions when it is installed in the winding system. It has demonstrated several key characteristics such as low power, high amplitude (more than 80 pm), and continuous working (more than 8 h) without water-cooling. Subsequently, experiments were carried out to determine the mechanical performance of the polymer material with and without ultrasound

treatment, showing that the ultrasonic treatment has improved the interfacial performance up to 10%, compared with those without any ultrasound-treatment. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci C59 datasheet 113:1816-1821, 2009″
“Study Design. Systematic literature review.

Objectives. To examine the available literature on health related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment in metastatic disease of the spine and identify the optimal functional outcome scales to be used in developing a disease-specific tool.

Summary of Background Data. There is a lack of consensus in the use of HRQOL measures in patients with metastatic spine disease.

Methods. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Science LY294002 price Citation Index (ISI), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health

Literature, the PsycINFO, the Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), Cochrane Reviews and Global Health databases for clinical studies addressing metastatic spine disease from 1966 through 2008. The validity of outcome tools was established by linkage analysis with the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF).

Results. One hundred forty-one clinical studies met inclusion criteria including 10,347 patients. Only 5 moderate grade and 1 high grade study were identified. Thirty-four studies used a patient self-assessment instrument to assess health status. None of the instruments were validated for metastatic spine patients. The most commonly used Pi-by-no tools were SF-36, SIP 5, and the ADL. None of the studies defined health related quality of life (HRQOL) or justified the choice of instrument. The most commonly used cancer-specific tools were ECOG, EORTC QCQ-C30, and EUROQOL 5D.

6 %, respectively, p < 0 05) Subjects

6 %, respectively, p < 0.05). Subjects RSL3 with inferior ER (n = 193) were older (61 +/- A 14, 49 +/- A 14, 54 +/- A 16 years, respectively, p < 0.05) than those with anterior (n = 176) or lateral (n = 48) ER. In males with ER, the elderly group (n = 22) had fewer instances of anterior ER (34,

59, 80 %, respectively, p < 0.05) than middle-aged (n = 76) or young (n = 59) groups. Elderly males (n = 37) and females (n = 48) had greater instances of inferior ER (57, 32, 19 %, p < 0.05; 86, 62, 46 %, respectively, p < 0.05) than middle-aged males (n = 41) and females (n = 41), and young males (n = 14) and females (n = 12), respectively. In conclusion, gender modulates the aging effects on the occurrences of anterior ER and inferior ER.”
“With the progress in cancer genetics and assisted reproductive technologies, it is now possible for cancer gene mutation carriers not only to reduce cancer mortality through the targeting of surveillance and preventive therapies, but also to avoid the birth of at-risk babies through the choice of different means of reproduction. Thus, the www.selleckchem.com/products/sn-38.html incidence of hereditary cancer

syndromes may be decreased in the future. The integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies raises certain ethical, legal and social issues beyond either genetic testing or assisted reproductive technology itself. In this paper, the reproductive decisions/choices of at-risk young couples and the ethical, legal and social concerns of prenatal genetic testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for susceptibility to hereditary cancer syndromes are discussed. Specifically, three ethical principles related to the integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies, i.e. informed choice, beneficence to children and social justice, and selleck chemicals their implications for the responsible translation of these medical techniques into common practice of preventive medicine are highlighted.”
“Many insects actively explore their near-range environment with their antennae. Stick insects(Carausius morosus) rhythmically move their antennae during walking and respond to antennal touch by repetitive tactile sampling of the object. Despite its relevance

for spatial orientation, neither the spatial sampling patterns nor the kinematics of antennation behavior in insects are understood. Here we investigate unrestrained bilateral sampling movements during climbing of steps. The main objectives are: (1) How does the antennal contact pattern relate to particular object features? (2) How are the antennal joints coordinated during bilateral tactile sampling? We conducted motion capture experiments on freely climbing insects, using steps of different height. Tactile sampling was analyzed at the level of antennal joint angles. Moreover, we analyzed contact patterns on the surfaces of both the obstacle and the antenna itself. Before the first contact, both antennae move in a broad, mostly elliptical exploratory pattern.

Details such as the

initial desorption of a nitrogen adla

Details such as the

initial desorption of a nitrogen adlayer and the formation of the Ga monolayer, bilayer, and droplets are monitored using RHEED and related to Ga flux and shutter cycles. The suggested model increases the understanding of the surface kinetics of GaN, provides an indirect method of monitoring the kinetic evolution of these surfaces, and introduces a novel method of in situ growth rate determination.”
“The various monovinly-functional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) monomers had been copolymerized with ethylene (E) using rac-Et(Ind)(2) ZrCl2 and a modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO) cocatalyst. The unreacted SB273005 nmr POSS monomer could be removed completely by washing the copolymerization product with n-hexane. And the copolymers were characterized with H-1 NMR, TEM, DSC, TGA, and GPC to know the composition, thermal properties, molecular weight and its distribution, respectively. According to H-1 NMR data, the monomer reactivity ratios of various POSS monomers were calculated by the Fineman-Ross and Kelen-Tudos methods. Thermogravimetric analysis of E/POSS copolymers exhibited an improved thermal stability

with a higher degradation temperature and char yields, demonstating that the inclusion LY2090314 of inorganic POSS nanoparticles made the organic polymer matrix more thermally robust. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Vorinostat Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 2697-2702, 2009″
“Red algae (RA) film containing grapefruit seed extract (GSE) was used as a wrapping film for cheese and bacon. RA film containing 1% GSE was prepared to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Wrapping of cheese

and bacon with the film decreased the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. After 15 days of storage, wrapping of cheese with the RA film reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 1.21 and 0.85 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to control. Bacon wrapped with the RA film also decreased the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 0.45 and 0.76 log CFU/g, respectively. Wrapping of bacon with the RA film decreased peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values. These results suggest that RA film containing GSE is a useful wrapping material for extending the shelf lives of cheese and bacon.”
“BiFeO3 (BFO), BiFe1-xTixO3, and BiFe0.9Ti0.05Co0.05O3 thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by chemical solution deposition. BFO film has distorted rhombohedral R-3c structure and in BiFe1-xTixO3 (104)/(110) reflections broadened suggesting limited grain growth with Ti substitution. The surface roughness (rms) decreased in the case of Ti substituted BFO. Up to 5% Ti in the lattice reduces the leakage current substantially.

For patients and

For patients and Liproxstatin-1 datasheet controls, EpiTrack scores reflected parents’ performance ratings and the children’s needs for extra education.

Conclusion: The junior version of EpiTrack appears to be a valid and reliable screening tool for the assessment of executive functions in children and adolescents. Future studies with a repeated measurement design must show how well this tool is suited for the tracking of cognitive effects of antiepileptic drug treatment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Rotation and strain fields were mapped across silicon-on-insulator (SOI) regions induced by overlying stressed Si(3)N(4) features using x-ray nanobeam diffraction.

The distribution in SOI tilt exhibited an antisymmetric distribution with a maximum magnitude of 7.9 milliradians,

representing one of the first direct measurements of the lattice tilt conducted in situ within buried layers using a spot size of less than 100 nm. The measured rotation distribution corresponds to simulated values generated by boundary element method modeling, indicating that the strain transfer into the underlying SOI primarily induces elastic deformation. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3579421]“
“A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study has been made on a series of 4-chloro-N-(4-oxopyrimidin-2-yl)-2-mercaptobenzenesulfonamides. The activities of the compounds BIX 01294 datasheet were reported against 3′-processing and the strand transfer processes catalyzed by the enzyme HIV-1 integrase. By a multiple regression, the activity against 3′-processing is found to be significantly correlated with hydrophobic and surface tension properties of the molecules and that against strand transfer with only hydrophobic property of the molecules and an indicator variable. Thus the results indicate that the hydrophobic property of the molecule plays a crucial role in the inhibition of both the 3′-processing and the strand transfer processes. The surface tension of the molecule is Navitoclax Apoptosis inhibitor also shown to have some effect on inhibition of 3′-processing.”
“A white SnCl2 phosphor

is synthesized by the chemical etching of Sn shots in an aqueous HCl solution. The optical properties of this phosphor are investigated using diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation spectroscopy, and PL lifetime measurements. The SnCl2 phosphor exhibits PL in the blue (similar to 460 nm) and red spectral regions (similar to 600 nm) under ultraviolet excitation (>= 4.1 eV). The differences in the PL features observed using Nd:YAG (lambda = 266 nm) and He-Cd (lambda = 325 nm) lasers as excitation light sources are interpreted using the configurational-coordinate model, taking into account the band-gap energy (similar to 3.8 eV) of SnCl2 and the excited-state energies of the Sn2+ ions.