While reaction times to a “”go”" stimulus improved, there was no

While reaction times to a “”go”" stimulus improved, there was no change in reaction times to the “”stop”" stimulus (SSRTs). However, changes in SSRTs induced by DBS were highly dependent on baseline SSRTs (measured off stimulation), with the greatest improvements being achieved by those Inflammation related inhibitor with particularly slow reaction times. We therefore selected only those patients whose baseline SSRTs were within the limits

of a control sample (N=10). In this group, SSRTs became slower when DBS was on. This finding suggests a role for the STN in response inhibition, which can be interrupted by DBS, observable only when more general improvements in Parkinson’s function are minimised. We also compared the effects of unilateral left and right sided stimulation. We found a greater increase in SSRTs after DES of the left STN. (C)

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), like other herpesviruses, has two stages to its life cycle: latency and lytic replication. KSHV is required for development of Kaposi’s NF-��B inhibitor sarcoma, a tumor of endothelial origin, and is associated with the B-cell tumor primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and the plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease, all of which are characterized by predominantly latent KSHV infection. Recently, we and others have shown that the activated form of transcription factor X-box

binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is a physiological trigger of KSHV lytic reactivation in PEL. Here, we show that XBP-1s transactivates the ORF50/RTA selleck screening library promoter though an ACGT core containing the XBP-1 response element, an element previously identified as a weakly active hypoxia response element (HRE). Hypoxia induces the KSHV lytic cycle, and active HREs that respond to hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha are present in the ORF50/RTA promoter. Hypoxia also induces active XBP-1s, and here, we show that both transcription factors contribute to the induction of RTA expression, leading to the production of infectious KSHV under hypoxic conditions.”
“Attentional set-shifting ability, commonly assessed with the Trail Making Test (TMT), decreases with increasing age in adults. Since set-shifting performance relies on activity in widespread brain regions, deterioration of the white matter tracts that connect these regions may underlie the age-related decrease in performance. We used an automated fiber tracking method to investigate the relationship between white matter integrity in several cortical association tracts and TMT performance in a sample of 24 healthy adults, 21-80 years. Diffusion tensor images were used to compute average fractional anisotropy (FA) for five cortical association tracts, the corpus callosum (CC), and the corticospinal tract (CST), which served as a control.

The subjects in BT-11-treated group showed more significant incre

The subjects in BT-11-treated group showed more significant increases in immediate recall on the K-CVLT than those in the placebo-treated group. In a

comparison within each group, the subjects’ scores on most subtests of the K-CVLT were significantly increased by both placebo and BT-11 treatment. Interestingly, the subjects’ scores on the recognition subtest of the K-CVLT were significantly increased by BT-11 treatment but not by placebo treatment. Also, BT-11 treatment significantly reduced the number of errors on the SOPT, whereas placebo treatment did not. We are the first to show that BT-11 has memory-enhancing effects and may be a memory-enhancing drug in healthy adults. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Selleck IACS-010759 Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the standard treatment of carotid stenosis for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), however, has been proposed as alternative therapy for patients deemed at high-risk for CEA. This study examined 30-day adjudicated outcomes in a contemporary series of CEAs and assessed the validity of criteria used to define a potential high-risk patient population for CEA.

Methods: Patients undergoing isolated CEA in private sector hospitals between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2006, were identified using the prospectively gathered National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

database. The primary study PSI-7977 order GSK1904529A cost end points were 30-day stroke and death rates. Demographic, preoperative, and intraoperative variables were examined using multivariate models to identify variables associated with the study end points. Variables used to define systemic “”high-risk”" patients in the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) study (active cardiac disease, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and octogenarian status) were examined individually and in composite fashion for association

with study endpoints.

Results. Of the 3949 CEAs performed, 59% were in men, 30% were “”high-risk”" (19% age >80), and 43% had a previous neurologic event. The 30-day stroke rate was 1.6%, the death rate was 0.7%, and combined stroke/death rate was 2.2%. Multivariate analysis showed that intraoperative transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 5.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-20.66; P=.005), prior majorstroke (OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 2.96-9.64; P<.0001), shorter height (surrogate for small artery size; OF, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; P=.010), and increased anesthesia time (OF, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P=.008) were predictive of stroke. Critical limb ischemia (OR, 12.72; 95% CI, 3.49-46.40; P<.0001) and poor functional status (OR, 7.05; 95% CI, 2.95-16.82; P<.0001) were independent correlates of death. Systemic high-risk variables, either combined or individually, did not increase risk of stroke or death on multivariate analysis.

Patients with known renal pelvis tumors, muscle invasive urotheli

Patients with known renal pelvis tumors, muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, prior cystectomy, contralateral upper tract urothelial carcinoma, metastatic disease or chemotherapy were excluded, leaving 120 patients for analysis. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Recurrence-free, cancer specific and

overall survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: Radical nephroureterectomy was performed in 87 patients and parenchymal sparing ureteral resection in 33. Median age at surgery was 73 years in the radical nephroureterectomy group (IQR 64-76) vs 70 years (IQR 59-77) in the parenchymal sparing ureteral ZD1839 datasheet resection group (p = 0.5). The radical nephroureterectomy and parenchymal sparing ureteral resection cohorts had several disparate clinicopathological variables including preoperative hydronephrosis (80% vs 45%, p = 0.0006), stage (pT3 or greater 26% vs 9%, p = 0.01) and

baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (51 vs 63 ml/minute/1.73 m(2), p = 0.009). Patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy experienced a significantly greater decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate after surgery (median -7 vs 0 ml/minute/1.73 m(2), p < 0.001). Median followup was 4.2 years. Of the patients 79 experienced cancer recurrence and 44 died (28 of upper tract urothelial carcinoma). There were no obvious differences in the Epacadostat chemical structure rates of recurrence, cancer specific death or overall death by procedure type. However, due to the limited number of events we cannot exclude the possibility that there are large differences in oncologic outcomes by procedure type.

Conclusions: Parenchymal sparing

ureteral resection is associated with superior postoperative renal function. However, the impact on cancer control cannot be determined conclusively due to the small sample size and putative selection bias.”
“This functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated long-term effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in individuals suffering from spider phobia. Ten female patients who had shown positive immediate CBT effects were invited to take part in a 6-month follow-up investigation. Here, the patients, Milciclib price along with eight non-phobic females, were presented with the same pictures depicting spiders, generally disgust-inducing, generally fear-inducing and neutral content, which they had viewed 6 months earlier. Patients’ self-report and overt behavior indicated a positive long-term clinical improvement Related hemodynamic changes included an increase in medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activity. As the medial OFC is involved in emotion-related learning, especially in the representation of positive stimulus-outcome associations, we conclude that the medial OFC effect constitutes the neuronal basis of the lasting positive CBT outcome.

(c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Glycolysis, a central metabolic

pathway, harbors evolutionary conserved enzymes that modulate and potentially shift the cellular metabolism on requirement. Pyruvate kinase, which catalyzes the last but rate-limiting step of glycolysis, is expressed in four Apoptosis inhibitor isozymic forms, depending on the tissue requirement. M2 isoform (PKM2) is exclusively expressed in embryonic and adult dividing/tumor cells. This tetrameric allosterically regulated isoform is intrinsically designed to downregulate its activity by subunit dissociation (into dimer), which results in partial inhibition of glycolysis at the last step. This accumulates all upstream glycolytic intermediates as an anabolic feed for synthesis of lipids and nucleic acids, whereas reassociation of PKM2 into active tetramer replenishes the normal catabolism as a feedback after cell division. In addition, involvement of this enzyme in a variety of pathways, protein protein interactions, and nuclear transport suggests its potential to perform multiple nonglycolytic functions with diverse implications, although multidimensional

role of this protein is as yet not fully explored. PF299804 molecular weight This review aims to provide an overview of the involvement of PKM2 in various physiological pathways with possible functional implications.”
“Purpose: The R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry is a standardized scoring system that quantifies the complexity

of kidney tumors. We evaluated our experience with laparoscopic cryoablation and determined the ability of nephrometry to predict complications.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent laparoscopic this website cryoablation from July 2005 to February 2010 at 3 institutions. The composite R.E.N.A.L. score was determined using preoperative imaging, and tumors were categorized as low (4-6), moderate (7-9) or high complexity (10-12). Perioperative data were analyzed to determine the presence of complications. The distribution of surgical complications and tumor categories was compared using the chi-square and Student’s t test. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between nephrometry score and postoperative complications.

Results: A total of 210 patients underwent laparoscopic cryoablation, 77 of whom had available preoperative imaging. Mean patient age was 64.5 years and mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range 1 to 4.5). Mean nephrometry score was 6.1 (range 4 to 12). Of the tumors 47 (61%) were categorized as low, 23 (30%) as moderate and 7 (9%) as high complexity lesions. Overall there were 15 (19.5%) complications, including 7 (9.5%) major and 8 (10%) minor complications.

The highest emulsification activity was detected in Pseudomonas g

The highest emulsification activity was detected in Pseudomonas geniculata with 52.77% of emulsification. Our overall results suggest that the obtained bacterial isolates may constitute potential candidates for bioremediation and can be useful for biotechnological applications.”
“Men are overrepresented in socially problematic behaviors, such as aggression and criminal behavior, which have been linked to impulsivity. Our review of impulsivity is organized around the tripartite theoretical distinction between reward hypersensitivity, punishment Selleck CB-5083 hyposensitivity, and inadequate

effortful control. Drawing on evolution try, criminological, developmental, and personality theories, we predicted that sex differences would be most pronounced in risky activities with men demonstrating greater sensation seeking, greater reward sensitivity, and lower punishment sensitivity. We predicted a small female advantage in effortful control. We analyzed buy Tariquidar 741 effect sizes from 277 studies, including psychometric and behavioral measures. Women were consistently more punishment sensitive (d = -0.33), but men did not show greater reward sensitivity (d = 0.01). Men showed significantly higher sensation seeking on questionnaire mea lures (d = 0.41) and on a behavioral risk-taking task (d = 0.36). Questionnaire measures of deficits in effortful control showed a very modest effect size

in the male direction (d = 0.08). Sex differences were not found on delay discounting or executive function tasks. The results indicate a stronger sex difference in motivational rather than effortful or executive forms of behavior control. Specifically, they support evolutionary selleck screening library and biological theories of risk taking predicated on sex differences in punishment sensitivity. A clearer understanding of sex differences in impulsivity depends upon recognizing important distinctions between sensation seeking and impulsivity, between executive and effortful forms of control, and between impulsivity as a deficit and as a trait.”
“Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading

bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated.

Early sensory impairments and subsequent atypical

Early sensory impairments and subsequent atypical selleck chemical neural connectivity are likely to play a part in abnormal language acquisition in autism. This paper aims to review the available data on the phenotype of language in autism as well as a number of structural, electrophysiological and functional brain-imaging studies to provide a more integrated view of the linguistic phenotype and its underlying neural deficits, and to provide new directions for research and therapeutic and experimental applications. (c) 2008 Elsevier

Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“DNA hypermethylation-mediated gene silencing is a frequent and early contributor to aberrant cell growth and invasion in cancer. Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors

in adults and the second most common tumor in children. Morbidity and mortality are high in glioma patients because tumors are resistant to treatment and are highly invasive into surrounding brain tissue rendering complete WH-4-023 mouse surgical resection impossible. Invasiveness is regulated by the interplay between secreted proteases ( eg, cathepsins) and their endogenous inhibitors ( cystatins). In our previous studies we identified cystatin E/ M ( CST6) as a frequent target of epigenetic silencing in glioma. Cystatin E/ M is a potent inhibitor of cathepsin B, which is frequently overexpressed in glioma. Here, we study the expression of cystatin E/ M in normal brain and show that it is highly and moderately expressed in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, respectively, but not in neurons. Consistent with this, the CST6 promoter is hypomethylated in all normal samples using methylation- specific PCR, bisulfite genomic sequencing, and pyrosequencing. In contrast, 78% of 28 primary brain tumors demonstrated reduced/ absent

cystatin E/ M expression using a tissue microarray and this reduced expression correlated with CST6 promoter hypermethylation. Interestingly, CST6 was expressed in neural stem cells ( NSC) and markedly induced upon differentiation, whereas a glioma SPTLC1 tumor initiating cell ( TIC) line was completely blocked for CST6 expression by promoter methylation. Analysis of primary pediatric brain tumor- derived lines also showed CST6 downregulation and methylation in nearly 100% of 12 cases. Finally, ectopic expression of cystatin E/ M in glioma lines reduced cell motility and invasion. These results demonstrate that epigenetic silencing of CST6 is frequent in adult and pediatric brain tumors and occurs in TICs, which are thought to give rise to the tumor. CST6 methylation may therefore represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target specifically altered in TICs.”
“Background: There is growing interest to research neurocognition as a putative endophenotype for subjects with bipolar disorders (BD).

Antithyroid drugs are the usual initial treatment (thionamides su

Antithyroid drugs are the usual initial treatment (thionamides such as carbimazole or its active metabolite methimazole are the drugs of choice). A prolonged course leads to remission of Graves’ hyperthyroidism in about a third of cases. Because of the low remission rate in

Graves’ disease and the inability to cure toxic nodular hyperthyroidism Epacadostat with antithyroid drugs alone, radioiodine is increasingly used as first line therapy, and is the preferred choice for relapsed Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Total thyroidectomy is an option in selected cases. Future efforts are likely to concentrate on novel and safe ways to modulate the underlying disease process rather than stopping excess thyroid hormone production.”
“P3 amplitude reduction (P3AR) is associated with adolescent alcohol use (AAU) and highly heritable, suggesting that P3AR may index a genetic predisposition (e.g., an endophenotype) CRT0066101 purchase for AAU. However, because P3AR and AAU covary naturally in the population, these observations are also consistent with P3AR reflecting neurotoxic effects of AAU on the developing adolescent brain. In this report, we describe the use of recent advancements in biometric modeling to examine changes in the genetic and environmental contributions to variability in P3 amplitude

related to cumulative AAU by late adolescence in a large community-based twin sample. We found that the genetic and environmental contributions to variability in P3 amplitude were unaffected by AAU. This suggests that P3AR indexes risk for alcoholism independent of any deleterious effect of AAU on adolescent brain development.”
“We compared early stages of face processing in young and older participants as indexed by ERPs elicited by faces and non-face stimuli presented in upright and inverted orientations. The P1 and N170 components were larger in

older than in young participants. However, the early distinction between stimulus categories as reflected by N170 face was similar across groups. Face inversion increased and delayed the N170 peak in the younger group while in older participants inversion delayed the N170 peak but had no Alpelisib in vivo effect on amplitude. The N170 amplitude was right-lateralized in the young, but not in the older group. Yet, the difference between the N170 elicited by faces and non-face stimuli was similarly right-lateralized in both groups. These data suggest that detection of faces and their streaming to face-characteristic structural encoding is not altered by age. In contrast, the absence of face-inversion effects on N170 amplitudes in the elderly suggest that face individuation, which is probably the default strategy in younger people, might not be attempted by default in older people, at least when they look at young faces.

Prostate specific antigen density 0 08 ng/ml/cc at first rebiopsy

Prostate specific antigen density 0.08 ng/ml/cc at first rebiopsy was validated as a significant predictor of subsequent progression.”
“Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia overlap in symptoms and may share some underlying neural substrates. The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) may

have a crucial role in the psychophysiology of both these disorders. In this study, we examined the functional connectivity between MPFC and other brain regions in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 14 patients with bipolar disorder, IPI-549 cost 16 patients with schizophrenia, and 15 healthy control subjects. Functional connectivity maps from the MPFC were computed for each subject and compared across the three groups. The three groups showed distinctive patterns of functional connectivity between MPFC and anterior insula, and between

MPFC and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The bipolar disorder group exhibited positive correlations between MPFC and insula, and between MPFC and VLPFC, whereas the control group exhibited anticorrelations between these regions. The schizophrenia group did not exhibit any resting-state correlation or anticorrelation between the MPFC and the VLPFC or insula. In contrast, neither patient group exhibited the significant anticorrelation between dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and MPFC that was exhibited by the control group. check details The decoupling of DLPFC with MPFC in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia is consistent with the impaired executive functioning seen in these disorders. Functional connectivity between MPFC and insula/VLPFC distinguished bipolar disorder from schizophrenia, and may reflect differences in the affective disturbances typical of each illness. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 2009-2017;

doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.88; published online Blebbistatin chemical structure 8 June 2011″
“Mud crab dicistrovirus (MCDV), a newly identified single-stranded positive RNA virus, is an important pathogen that causes serious economic losses to mud crab aquaculture. In this study, MCDV was purified, and three structural proteins of MCDV were separated by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal 15 amino acids were sequenced and aligned with the main structural proteins of other dicistrovirus. The three structural proteins were named VP1, VP2 and VP3. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the two main structural proteins, VP1 and VP2, were prepared, and the two structural proteins were then identified using these MAbs. The results of Western blot analyses demonstrated that five MAbs recognised VP1 and two recognised VP2. The results of immunogold transmission electron microscopy (IEM) revealed that the epitopes of the two structural proteins recognised by the MAbs were located at the outer surface of the virions, which suggested that the two structural proteins are MCDV capsid proteins.

Deoxyhemoglobin values for the plantar metatarsal, arch, and heel

Deoxyhemoglobin values for the plantar metatarsal, arch, and heel angiosomes were significantly different between patients with and without PAD (P < .005). Mean deoxyhemoglobin values for the same three angiosomes showed significant buy APR-246 differences between patients with monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic waveforms (P < .05). In patients with PAD, there was also significant correlation between deoxyhemoglobin values and ABI for the same three angiosomes (P = .001). Oxyhemoglobin values did not predict the presence or absence

of PAD, did not correlate with PAD severity, and did not correlate with the ABI.

Conclusions: These results suggest the ability of hyperspectral imaging to detect the presence of PAD.

Hyperspectral measurements can also evaluate different severities of PAD. (J Vasc Surg 2011;54:1679-88.)”
“Electrolytic lesions of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (commNTS) in rats enhance the pressor response to bilateral carotid occlusion or to intravenous infusion of hypertonic NaCl without changing baroreflex responses. In an opposite direction, commNTS lesions abolish the pressor responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation. These opposite effects of commNTS lesions Citarinostat mouse apparently result from an impairment of sympathetic activation in one case and in a facilitation of vasopressin secretion in the others. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the electrolytic lesions of the commNTS in the pressor responses

that depend on sympathetic activation and vasopressin secretion produced by central cholinergic or adrenergic activation with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of carbachol or noradrenaline, respectively, in unanesthetized rats. Male Holtzman rats (280-320g, n = 8-15/group) with acute (1 day) or chronic (21 days) sham or commNTS lesions (1 mA x 10 s) and a stainless steel cannula implanted find more in the lateral ventricle were used. Acute commNTS lesions increased the pressor response to i.c.v, injection of carbachol (0.5 nmol/1 mu 1) (52 +/- 2, vs. sham: 37 +/- 2 mmHg) or noradrenaline (80 nmol/1 mu 1) (45 +/- 6, vs. sham: 30 +/- 3 mmHg), whereas chronic commNTS lesions did not affect the pressor responses to the same treatments. Lesions of the commNTS impaired chemoreflex responses produced by intravenous KCN, without changing baroreflex responses. The results suggest that commNTS-dependent inhibitory signals are involved in the modulation of the pressor responses to central cholinergic and adrenergic activation, probably limiting vasopressin secretion. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Virulent strains of bacteria and viruses recognize host cells by their plasma membrane receptors and often exploit the native translocation machinery to invade the cell.

This was associated with a lower muscle triglyceride content and

This was associated with a lower muscle triglyceride content and higher AKT phosphorylation. Pair-feeding showed that mitochondrial effects of ghrelin are independent of changes in food intake, whereas combined ghrelin treatment and higher food intake were needed to enhance AKT phosphorylation. Thus, ghrelin-induced muscle mitochondrial changes and lower tissue triglycerides could favor insulin action and muscle anabolism in the presence of improvement in food intake.

Our study shows that combined effects of ghrelin on appetite and muscle mitochondria improve muscle metabolic and nutritional alterations in chronic kidney disease. This could have potential beneficial impact on patient morbidity and survival. Kidney International (2010) 77, 23-28; doi:10.1038/ki.2009.411; IPI-549 published online PLX4032 4 November 2009″
“Introduction: The serotonergic system, especially the 5-HT2A receptor, is involved in various diseases and conditions. It is a very interesting target for medicinal applications.

Methods: Two novel 5-HT2A tracers, namely, [F-18]DD-1 and the enantiomeric pure (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ, were radiolabeled by F-18-fluoroalkylation of the corresponding

desmethyl analogue. In vitro binding autoradiography on rat brain slices was performed to test the affinity and selectivity of these tracers. Moreover, first mu PET experiments of (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Results: [F-18]DD-1 (K-i=3.23 nM) and (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ (K-i=0.72 nM) were F-18-fluoroalkylated by the secondary synthon [F-18]FETos in a radiochemical yield (RCY) of >70%. The final formulation for both tracers took no longer than 100 min with an overall RCY of similar to 40%. It provided [F-18]tracers with a purity >96% and a typical specific activity of 25-35 GBq/mu mol. Autoradiographic images of (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ (5) and [F-18]DD-1 (4) showed excellent visualization and selectivity of the 5-HT2A receptor for (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ and less specific binding for [F-18]DD-1. The binding potential (BP) of (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ

was determined to be 2.6 in the frontal cortex and 2.2 in the cortex (n=4), www.selleck.cn/products/blebbistatin.html whereas the cortex-to-cerebellum ratio was determined to be 3.2 at steady state (n=4). Cortex-to-cerebellum ratios of (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ were almost twice as much as compared with the racemic [F-18]MH.MZ. Thereby, equal levels of specific activities were used. High uptake could be demonstrated in cortex regions.

Conclusion: Labeling of both novel tracers was carried out in high RCY. Autoradiography revealed (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ as a very selective and affine 5-HT2A tracer (K-i=0.72 nM), whereas [F-18]DD-1 showed no reasonable distribution pattern on autoradiographic sections. Moreover, results from mu PET scans of (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ hint on improved molecular imaging characteristics compared with those of [F-18]MH.MZ. Therefore, (R)-[F-18]MH.MZ appears to be a highly potent and selective serotonergic PET ligand in small animals.