Conversely, VD supplementation has been proposed as an adjunct to current standard cares for treatment of hepatitis C. A clinical study found that 25(OH)D serum levels Endocrinology antagonist were significantly lower in chronic
hepatitis C (25 μg/L) than in the controls (43 μg/L). Expression levels of CYP27A1 correlated with 25(OH)D levels, but they were inversely related to necroinflammation. Moreover, low VD is linked to severe fibrosis and impaired sustained virologic response (SVR) in IFN-based therapy. One clinical trial showed that adding VD to the standard IFN plus ribavirin treatment significantly increased SVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. The SVR was defined as undetectable HCV-RNA at 24 weeks post-treatment.
The increased SVR attained by VD treatment was found to be even better for patients infected with HCV genotypes 2 and 3. Another clinical selleck screening library study showed that the levels of VD and of its active form were significantly lower in advanced liver disease (hepatic cirrhosis and/or carcinoma) patients. Conversely, low VD is associated with inflammation, as shown by elevated IL-17 and IL-23 levels in advanced patients. Regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms, an in vitro study showed that vitamin D3 remarkably inhibits HCV production in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. These cells express VD hydroxlases and can eventually generate calcitriol. Notably, treatment with calcitriol resulted in HCV inhibition through induction of IFN-beta. Intriguingly, HCV infection increased calcitriol production by inhibiting CYP24A1, implying that viral-induced immune tolerance may favor viral chronicity. A recent study surprisingly found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, but not 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is capable of reducing HCV by inhibiting infectious virus assembly. VDBP gene polymorphisms may also determine the VD levels. By examining HCV patients treated with a combination therapy of pegylated interferon alpha (PEG–IFN) plus ribavirin, one study found that good responses to the treatment were related to both the VD levels greater than 20 ng/mL and
the wild-type VDBP polymorphisms. VDR polymorphisms have also been associated with liver diseases, such as primary biliary cirrhosis.[68, 69] A recent clinical study 上海皓元 measured the effects of 25-OH VD plasma levels and VDR polymorphisms on fibrosis progression in HCV patients. Results showed that the bAt(CCA)-haplotype was significantly associated with fibrosis progression. VD deficiency or insufficiency is well recognized for the association with variety of chronic degenerative diseases, including chronic hepatitis, viral persistence, ALD, NASH, and poor responsiveness for antiviral treatment. Among its multiple functions, immune modulation/regulation by VD is essential for tissue homeostasis and health physiologic response in addition to its job in calcium adsorption.