Among quinolones, moxifloxacin appears to also be effective again

Among quinolones, moxifloxacin appears to also be effective against Bacterioides fragilis, suggesting that the drug may be equally effective without co-administered Bafilomycin A1 antianaerobic agents [230–232]. However, in recent years, the ever-increasing incidence of drug resistance

among Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli has discouraged the drug’s use in empirical regimens. Aminoglycosides are particularly active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria and act synergistically against certain gram-positive organisms. They are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa but are ineffective against anaerobic bacteria. Aminoglycosides may be suboptimal for treatment of abscesses or intra-abdominal infections due

to their low penetration in acidic environments [233]. Tigecycline is a parenteral see more glycylcycline antibiotic derived from minocycline. It is the first representative of the glycylcycline class of antibacterial agents to be marketed for clinical use [234, 235]. While tigecycline does not feature in vitro activity against P. aeruginosa or P. mirabilis, it remains a viable treatment option for complicated IAIs due to its favorable in vitro activity against anaerobic organisms, Enterococci, several ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia[236–238]. The use of tigecycline

to treat IAIs is particularly useful in light of its unique pharmacokinetic properties; the drug is eliminated by active biliary secretion and is therefore able to establish high biliary and fecal concentrations [239]. Cultures from Axenfeld syndrome the site of infection are always recommended for patients with Fosbretabulin healthcare-associated infections or with community-acquired infections at risk for resistant pathogens. In these patients, the causative pathogens and the related resistance patterns are not readily predictable and therefore require further analysis (Recommendation 1C). The results of microbiological analysis are helpful in designing therapeutic strategies for individual patients to customize antibiotic treatments and ensure adequate antimicrobial coverage. Although it has been documented that bacteriological cultures have little impact on the course of treatment of common conditions like appendicitis [240], in this era of prevalent drug-resistant microorganisms involved in both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, the threat of resistance is a source of major concern that cannot be ignored. In 2010, a review was published investigating the value of peritoneal fluid cultures in cases of appendicitis [241].

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