CrossRef 49. Croucher NJ, Harris SR, Fraser C, Quail MA, Burton J, van der Linden M, McGee L, von Gottberg A, Song JH, Ko KS, et al.: Rapid pneumococcal evolution in response to clinical interventions. Science 2011,331(6016):430–434.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions JRB participated in the molecular data collection, analysis, and interpretation, and drafted the VS-4718 cost manuscript. EMD designed the study and was involved in critically revising the manuscript. JLN participated in the molecular data collection and analysis. BRW conducted the microbiological methods selleck chemicals llc and analyzed and interpreted data. DSS participated in data collection and was involved in critically revising
the manuscript. AHW and PMB designed the assays and methods for real-time PCR. NH and AK participated in molecular data collection, analysis and interpretation. LMW participated in data collection and analysis. DMW participated in data collection and was involved in critically revising the manuscript. MRF, MS, DME, and PSK conceived of and designed the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Wolbachia are endosymbiotic α–Proteobacteria that are maternally transmitted and cause various
reproductive manipulations in a wide range of invertebrate hosts (see  for a review). Wolbachia infection is widespread in Crustacea where species of the three main classes (Malacostraca, Ostracoda, and Maxillipoda) were found to be infected . Wolbachia prevalence reaches ~60% in terrestrial isopods (order Oniscidea). In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, one of the most intensively studied examples, selleck kinase inhibitor Wolbachia are responsible for inducing the development of genetic males into functional females. This is achieved by preventing the androgenic gland differentiation responsible for male development [3, 4]. Consequently, in the progenies of infected mothers the proportion of females reaches 70 to 80% according to the transmission rate of Wolbachia [5, 6]. This modification of the host sex ratio leads
to a low proportion of males in the field reached 20% as evidenced by a meta-analysis of 57 populations . Since Wolbachia vertical transmission is dependent on the reproductive success of their Oxymatrine hosts, it could be expected that the infection provides fitness benefit that could promote dispersion of Wolbachia in the host population. Surprisingly, most field populations of A. vulgare are not infected by Wolbachia , which could reflect the conflicting relationships between the pill bug and the bacteria. As some life history traits of A. vulgare are directly impacted by Wolbachia, the low prevalence of the infected specimens in natural populations could be due to various factors that reduce the host fitness. Feminizing Wolbachia have the potential to reduce male to female ratio to values limiting mating possibilities and therefore limiting population size . Furthermore, males are able to distinguish between infected and uninfected females .