Each data point represents

Each data point represents selleck chemicals an individual check details animal and data is from two separate experiments. *, p<0.05. Discussion Protein-chaperone interactions are essential for T3SS function because they coordinate the delivery and secretion of substrate cargo. Class II virulence chaperones are particularly important since they direct translocon secretion as a prerequisite step for the proper delivery of all subsequent effectors into the host cell. Given the modest sequence similarity between

the Yersinia class II virulence chaperone SycD and SscA, we analyzed SscA as the potential chaperone for the SseC translocon in the Salmonella SPI-2 T3SS. The structure of SycD shows a crescent shape molecule with the concave Selleck Barasertib face possessing protein interaction sites that are common between SycD and SscA (i.e. Y40, Y52, Y93) [8]. The Shigella class II chaperone IpgC possesses a similar structure with the concave face binding an amino acid region of its cognate cargo IpaD [22], suggesting that a common cargo-binding region may exist among class II virulence chaperones. Using protein-protein interaction studies and secretion assays we demonstrated that SscA is the class II virulence chaperone for SseC and showed that this interaction is important for Salmonella pathogenicity as deletion of either sscA or sseC lead to similar attenuated phenotypes in mouse infections. As documented previously,

effectors can be secreted to the cell surface of the bacteria in the absence of a functional translocon, however delivery of effector proteins into host cells requires an assembled translocon apparatus [23, 24]. Interestingly, the sseC mutant had a more pronounced negative effect on replication in RAW264.7 cells suggesting an additional

role for SseC that does not depend on its secretion, or that a very small number of bacteria assemble a functional translocon in the absence of the SscA chaperone, allowing for some measure of phenotype recovery in vitro. This latter possibility was suggested for Yersinia LcrH point mutants that Morin Hydrate had reduced secretion of translocon proteins but retained some ability to intoxicate host cells from a minimal number of T3SS [25]. In our system, we find this possibility unlikely because we found no evidence for SseC secretion in the absence of SscA chaperone even for highly concentrated samples, and the attenuation level of the sscA and sseC mutants was similar in animal infections. Methods Ethics statement All experiments with animals were conducted according to guidelines set by the Canadian Council on Animal Care. The local animal ethics committee, the Animal Review Ethics Board at McMaster University, approved all protocols developed for this work. Bacterial strains, cloning, and growth conditions Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 (S. Typhimurium) was used as the wild type parent strain for all mutants generated in this study.

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