For benzodiazepines, this includes alprazolam, clobazam, clonazep

For benzodiazepines, this includes alprazolam, clobazam, clonazepam, and lorazepam, while for opiates this includes buprenorphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone. A few marketed immunoassays (e.g., Biosite Triage) have attempted to broaden specificity by using antibodies raised against multiple antigenic targets. The potential disadvantage of this approach is reduced specificity and increased false positives. Also, any alteration of these immunoassays has implications for workplace and athlete testing, leading to pressure to keep assay performance stable across many years of testing. Many marketed DOA/Tox screening immunoassays have documented cross-reactive drugs that can produce false positives. In Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the medical

setting, false positives can lead to incorrect diagnoses and treatment. One way to limit false positives is to use higher concentration Imatinib order cutoffs for determining what constitutes a positive screening result, although this has the trade-off of reducing sensitivity. This strategy is common in workplace DOA testing where cutoff concentrations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for a variety of DOA screening tests are often higher than cutoffs used in the medical

setting, so as to limit false positives that require costly and time-consuming confirmatory testing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [7,10]. For example, using higher cutoffs helps reduce the issue of poppy seed ingestion causing a positive opiate screen [70] or passive marijuana inhalation resulting in a tetrahydrocannabinol positive screen [71]. We demonstrated that PCP and TCA screening assays are prone to false positives by common drugs that may be taken in overdose, either in suicide attempts or for psychotropic effects (e.g., dextromethorphan, meperidine). In our own medical center study, there were more Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical false positives than true positives for both PCP and TCA screening assays applied to a selleck chemical Axitinib clinical sample that included many ED patients. This brings into question the utility of these particular tests in settings where use/abuse of the target drug(s) is uncommon. One application of our Tanimoto similarity assessment using the MDL keys would be to identify Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical compounds that

have a high likelihood of cross-reacting with marketed immunoassays. The 2D similarity method can readily screen very large databases of many thousands of drugs (including herbal products) and their Dacomitinib metabolites. Compounds with high Tanimoto similarity to the immunoassay antigenic target(s) can then be prioritized for testing for cross-reactivity. This approach would provide a more systematic approach to cross-reactivity testing and may identify previously unknown clinically important cross-reactive drug or drug metabolites more quickly, leading to an increased recognition of potential cross-reactivity by clinicians. The steady increase in prescription and over-the-counter medications available clinically presents a difficult challenge for future DOA/Tox immunoassay design. Some newer therapeutic classes of drugs that are often taken in overdose (e.g.

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