Indeed, our preliminary studies reveal the overexpression of fatt

Indeed, our preliminary studies reveal the overexpression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, two important enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, in livers of Alb/AEG-1 mice (Supporting Fig. 10). A detailed study analyzing the molecular mechanism of AEG-1-induced steatosis is currently under way. In summary, the

Alb/AEG-1 mouse uncovers several novel aspects of AEG-1 function that might not be possible using in vitro models and nude mice xenograft studies. Characterization of this model facilitates the identification of potential biomarkers that might be further validated in HCC patient samples. This mouse model might also be valuable in evaluating novel therapeutic approaches targeted toward NAFLD and HCC. Additional Supporting Information may be found

in the online version of this album. “
“Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like (HEYL) protein was first click here identified as a transcriptional repressor. It is a downstream gene of the Notch and transforming growth factor-β pathways. Little is known about its role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eighty surgically resected paired HCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were analyzed for HEYL expression by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). HCC cells were transfected with pHEYL-EGFP vector to overexpress the HEYL gene or infected with specific shHEYL lentiviral vector to silence HEYL gene expression. HEYL expressional analysis and functional characterization were assessed by 3-(4 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

assays, flow cytometry, RT–qPCR, western see more blotting and methylation-specific PCR. We determined that HEYL expression was inactivated in more than 75% of HCC. In addition, overexpression of HEYL in SK-Hep 1 cells caused apoptosis by the cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. We discovered that HEYL apoptosis was preceded by serine 15 phosphorylation and accumulation of P53. Molecular analysis revealed that HEYL overexpression led to increased p16, p19, p21, p27 and Bad protein expression, and reduced c-Myc, Bcl-2 and Cyclin B1 expression. Epigenetic silencing of HEYL expression by DNA hypermethylation in HCC directly correlated with loss of HEYL expression in HCC. HEYL is frequently downregulated by promoter methylation in HCC. HEYL may be a tumor suppressor of liver carcinogenesis through upregulation of P53 gene expression and activation of P53-mediated apoptosis. “
“Background and Aim:  A reliable test for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) could improve disease management. Recent reports suggested a link between abnormalities in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and HCC. We investigated the potential of using UPS markers, along with HCC markers, to differentiate HCC from chronic liver disease (CLD).

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