Mohr and colleagues5 showed a positive correlation between depres

Mohr and colleagues5 showed a positive correlation between depression and in vitro IFN-γ production. IFN-γ is the main proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated TH1 cells, and is regarded as a major effector selleck chem mechanism in the pathogenesis of MS. In this study, amelioration of depression after psychotherapy or antidepressant medication treatment was

paralleled by decreases in the capacity to produce IFN-γ. These findings suggest that the selleck chemical Sorafenib production of the proinflammatory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cytokine IFN-γ by autoaggressive T cells in RRMS is related to depression, and that treatment of depression may decrease IFN-γ production. In another study supportive of a bidirectional relationship between the impact of MS on depression, treatment of MS depression with lofepramine, a derivative of the antidepressant medication imipramine, was associated with decreases of gadolinium-enhancing lesion load on T1-weighted scans.164 Thus, treatment of depression may provide a novel disease-modifying therapeutic

strategy as well as a symptomatic treatment for patients with MS. Depression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may also predispose to inflammatory conditions. A recent study reported that mild depressive symptoms are associated with enhanced systemic inflammatory responses to immune challenge.165 Furthermore, in an animal model of stress-induced depression, early life depression led to enhanced vulnerability to colitis in adulthood166; this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical susceptibility was reversed by antidepressant therapy. The observation that depression increased vulnerability to intestinal inflammation led the authors Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to speculate that pre-existing depression may facilitate the expression of inflammatory bowel diseases in humans. Thus, it is conceivable that depression can predispose vulnerable individuals to autoimmune diseases such as MS, which further cause and amplify the severity of the depression. This in turn Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical worsens the severity of the state of MS immune activation, generating a positive feedback loop that could become self-sustaining. Conclusions We have surveyed

the research supporting a biological basis of depression in MS, which we suggest is an ideal model to study immune-mediated mood disorders. We discuss the possible contributions of neuroendocrine, neuroinflammatory, and neurotrophic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated depression in MS. These mechanisms suggest a novel and diverse array of potential treatment strategies that may lead to new treatments for depression, Carfilzomib which are currently much needed since it has been almost two decades since the introduction of a treatment for major depressive disorder that was not based on the traditional monoamine hypothesis of depression. Whether these treatments will lend themselves specifically to the management of depression in the context of inflammatory conditions, or whether they will also have utility in idiopathic depression, will await future clinical evaluation.

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