S2). This early induction is not surprising, as this enzyme performs a preliminary step in common pathways that include isoprenoid and ergosterol synthesis. In carotenogenesis, it is the second essential enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, after 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of mevalonic acid to click here produce phosphomevalonate. MK activity is regulated by intermediates in the pathway, such as geranyl pyrophosphate, FPP and GGPP, via feedback inhibition . For phosphomevalonate
kinase we observed the highest abundance at lag phase, while diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase reached its highest levels during the exponential and stationary phases. Because these two proteins perform sequential HDAC inhibitor steps in the transformation of mevalonate our results indicate that this pathway is tightly regulated to ensure metabolite HSP990 manufacturer availability. Another significant carotenoid-synthesis protein is phytoene/squalene synthase, which showed higher abundance at the end of the exponential growth during the induction of carotenoid synthesis (Table 1 and additional file 4, Fig. S2). This result agrees with our previously reported mRNA expression analysis, in which the maximal levels of carotenoid-specific genes were observed after three days of culture, at the end
of the exponential growth phase [22, 23]. In constrast, in H.
pluvialis, the mRNA transcript levels of carotenoid-related genes reach their maximal levels 24-48 h after stress induction, and the synthesis and accumulation of astaxanthin occur 6-12 days after stress . Another enzyme that performs an initial step in carotenogenesis, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase (IDI), shows maximum expression at 24 h after stress induction in H. pluvialis, and is then down-regulated as stress persist; a similar behavior has also been observed for phytoene desaturase [43, 49] (see additional file 3, Table S2). Thus, carotenoid-related enzymes in both H. pluvialis and X. dendrorhous may have low turnover rates; Galeterone this low rate ensures their long-term activities in astaxanthin biosynthesis. Conclusions In this work, which is the first proteomic characterization of X. dendrorhous, we describe a protocol for the enrichment of protein extracts for membrane-bound proteins and the efficient extraction of proteins in the presence of excess hydrophobic materials such as lipids or carotenoids. We have also generated a preliminary proteome map, which will be valuable for further studies of the organism under different growth conditions. We identified two principal types of protein regulation associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis.