Statistical analyses for comparing groups in regards to categorical variables were performed using Fisher’s exact test. Similar comparisons for continuous variables were done using the Wilcoxon non-parametric test with exact p-values. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to obtain PFS and OS estimates. Survival was compared between groups using the log-rank test. Estimates of risk were obtained using the proportional hazard model. Values for continuous variables are given as median (range). Values for categorical data are specified as frequency. Statistical not analysis was performed using SAS statistical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analysis software version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc,
Cary, NC, USA). A nominal significance level of 0.05 was used. Results Of
the 116 patients, 60 (52%) were female with a median age of 67 years (range, 43-89). Eight-four patients (72%) received chemoradiation [RT (+) group] and 32 (28%) patients received selleck chemical chemotherapy alone [RT (-) group]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Patient and treatment characteristics of both groups are summarized in Table 1. RT (+) and RT (-) groups were similar with respect to age, gender, percent weight loss, tumor size, T-stage, nodal status, histologic grade, pre-treatment CA 19-9, and use of gemcitabine based chemotherapy (all P=ns). The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 32.4-60) in the RT (+) group. Patients in the RT (+) group were more likely to have an ECOG of 1-2 (96% vs. 81%, P=0.01) and experience less Grade 3-4 toxicity than the RT (-) group (19.1% vs. 45.1%, P=0.01). Table 1 Patient and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment characteristics Of the 84 patients in the RT (+) group, 24 received induction chemotherapy followed by CRT and then additional chemotherapy; 41 received CRT followed by chemotherapy and 19 received CRT alone. Concurrent
chemoradiation was primarily (70%) 5-fluourouracil based. The remaining 32 patients comprising the RT (-) group received chemotherapy alone with the majority (78%) receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. With a median follow-up Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of 11 months (range, 1.6-59.4 months), local recurrences and/or distant metastasis were observed in 53% of patients. The majority (92%) had distant metastatic disease. The most frequent site of distant metastasis was the liver (47%). Detailed patterns of failure by treatment modality are shown in Table 2. Table 2 Patterns of failure according to treatment modality Univariate analysis showed that grade 3-4 toxicity was an adverse prognostic Carfilzomib factor affecting PFS and OS. Other patient and treatment factors including age, tumor size, T stage, nodal status, histologic grade, pre-treatment CA 19-9, chemotherapy regimen, and the use of RT were also analyzed and are summarized in Table 3. Table 3 Univariate analysis for progression-free survival and overall survival When evaluated by treatment modality, PFS was 10.9 months for the RT (+) group versus 9.1 months for the RT (-) group (Figure 1).