The cells and probes were codenatured at 72°C for 2 minutes and s

The cells and probes were codenatured at 72°C for 2 minutes and subsequently placed in a moist chamber for at least two nights at 37°C. Post-hybridization washing was performed as previously described with minor modifications GDC-0068 price [19, 20]. The Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor slides were air-dried in the dark and counterstained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI II; Abbott Molecular). Image

processing and 24-color karyotyping were performed with the SpectraVysion Imaging System (Abbott Molecular). Hybridization signals were assessed in a minimum of 10 metaphase cells. DNA extraction and Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) DNA Selleckchem Captisol was extracted from FU-MFH-2 cells at passage 25 and from the original tumor tissue according to a standard procedure using phenol and chloroform extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The purity and molecular weight of DNA were estimated using ethidium bromide-stained

agarose gels. CGH was performed as described previously [21]. Briefly, DNA from the FU-MFH-2 cell line and original tumor was directly labeled with fluorescein-12-dUTP (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) by nick translation, with the use of a commercial kit (Abbott Molecular). As a normal reference DNA, we used the Spectrum Red directed-labeled male total human DNA (Abbott Molecular). Subsequently, equal amounts of normal and tumor labeled probes (400 ng) and 20 μg of Cot-1 DNA (GIBCO BRL) were coprecipitated with ethanol. The precipitated DNA was dissolved in Amisulpride 10 μl of hybridization buffer and denatured at 75°C for 8 minutes. Normal metaphase spreads (Abbott Molecular) were denatured for 3 minutes at 75°C and hybridized with the DNA mixture in a moist chamber for 3 days. Slides were washed according to the protocol supplied by the manufacturer. Chromosomes were counterstained with

4′,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) and embedded in antifade solution (Vectashield, Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA). Digital image analysis The location of aberrant CGH signals was analyzed using an image analysis system (Isis, Carl Zeiss Vision, Oberkochen, Germany) based on an integrated high-sensitivity monochrome charge-coupled device camera and automated CGH analysis software (MetaSystems GmbH). Three-color images, green (fluorescein-12-dUTP) for the tumor DNA, red (Spectrum Red) for the reference DNA, and blue (DAPI) for the DNA counterstain, were acquired from at least 10 metaphases.

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