The NO16966 trial randomized, in a 2×2 factorial design, 1,401 p

The NO16966 trial randomized, in a 2×2 factorial design, 1,401 previously add to your list untreated mCRC patients either to capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) or FOLFOX4, with bevacizumab or placebo. Despite a statistically significant improvement in progression free survival (PFS), a similar improvement in overall survival (OS) was not observed (6). In the second-line setting, the

efficacy of VEGF inhibition was demonstrated in bevacizumab-naïve patients in the ECOG 3200 trial, with significant improvements in mOS and mPFS (7). In the VELOUR trial, the novel VEGF inhibitor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ziv-aflibercept with FOLFIRI after progression on first-line oxaliplatin-based regimen showed improvement in mOS (8). Results of these and other studies have been the basis for the continued prominent role of VEGF inhibition in bevacizumab-naïve mCRC patients. Furthermore, with growing

reports of rebound or flare-up of angiogenesis when VEGF-targeted therapy was withheld, clinicians Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical favored continuing anti-angiogenic therapy after initial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clinical and/or radiological progression in the first or second-line setting (9,10). This notion was supported by the TML study showing improvements in mPFS and mOS, favoring bevacizumab continuation when combined with chemotherapy backbone following progression on prior chemotherapy (11). Conversely, the GONO trial randomized mCRC patients treated first-line with bevacizumab and fluoropyrimidines (FOLFIRI, FOLFOX or FOLFOXIRI) to receive mFOLFOX6 or FOLFIRI with or without bevacizumab. Although Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical survival data are not mature, mPFS improved from 5.2 to 6.7 months with bevacizumab [hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, P=0.0072], but mOS was 16.0 versus 16.5 months (HR: 0.83, P=0.34) (12). Despite these conflicting results and modest done difference in OS, many Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clinicians choose to continue patients on VEGF inhibitors. With recent FDA approval of regorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor with angiogenic inhibition, in patients with mCRC patients who have failed standard therapies, the continued role

of anti-angiogenic therapy comes to the forefront again (13). Compared to placebo, regorafenib improved mPFS from 1.7 to 1.9 months (HR: 0.49, P<0.000001) and mOS from 5.0 to 6.4 months (HR: 0.77, P=0.005), regardless of K-RAS status (14). Cilengitide The real question is: does this study support the continued pivotal role of anti-angiogenic inhibitors in patients with mCRC? Prior to regorafenib approval, mCRC patients who failed standard therapies were enrolled on phase I clinical trials. Many novel agents with various mechanisms of action have demonstrated clinical efficacy amongst patients with mCRC. However, no data on pooled efficacy data analysis are available in the literature. Our institution has been conducting early phase clinical trials for over two decades.

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