These risk issues may be just as relevant to look into as risks a

These risk issues may be just as relevant to look into as risks addressed by worst-case scenarios. Selleck Roscovitine In light of the addressed uncertainties, limitations and value-ladenness, to what extent is there a role for experts and science? Knowledge about technical and environmental conditions is clearly essential for decision making. However, since values

are often embedded in methodological choices, uncertainty needs to be carefully addressed [10]. This paper seeks to contribute to an increased awareness around crucial uncertainties and their roles. Because of value-ladenness and uncertainty, extended peer-review is central in post-normal science [11]. Our findings suggest that the policy process and the role of experts and science should be discussed and revised in relation

to open the Lofoten area to petroleum production. However, further discussions on this topic lie outside the scope of this paper. We are grateful for the crucial discussions with Silvio Funtowicz and Matthias Kaiser at an early stage of the paper. Eva Marie Skulstad is warmly thanked for providing the map. The research is funded by the Research Council of Norway, Project no. 13565. “
“The UK government has set targets to supply 20% of its energy requirements from renewable sources by 2020 (European Commission′s Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC)). However, it is recognised that land based energy resources including solar, wind and biomass often create conflicts over land use and ownership [1]. Therefore, alternative solutions UK-371804 concentration are desirable. Fortunately the UK has large and exploitable offshore energy resources including wind, wave and tidal currents [2] and an increase in their use could go some way towards reaching these government targets. Currently the UK’s marine

renewable energy installations are Tryptophan synthase dominated by wind turbines although it is acknowledged that diversification is necessary [3]. As a result, there is an interest in the development of installations to exploit tidal current energies, and it is likely that there will be a substantial increase in the number of tidal stream turbine installations within UK waters over the next decade [1]. The UK holds internationally important numbers of seabirds [4] and there is a legal obligation to consider the effects from tidal stream turbines upon these populations (The European Birds Directive; 2009/147/EC). Although the potential impacts on UK seabird populations are diverse in their nature and severity [5] and [6], it is the possibility of mortalities from collisions with moving components that often cause the most concern [7]. In this respect, tidal stream turbines differ from other marine renewable installations in that their moving components occur beneath the water surface. Therefore, only species that can dive to depths where moving components are found face collision risks.

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