We then examined the mycelial growth in media with 5%, 10% and 15% peptone, Temsirolimus molecular weight and observed increased mycelium dry weights when the peptone concentrations were increased (Figure 3B), suggesting that high concentrations of peptone promoted mycelial growth and at the same time inhibited AF biosynthesis. For each of the peptone concentrations, it
was observed that cultures with higher initial spore densities showed an increase in mycelial growth. Taken together, these studies revealed that high concentrations of peptone promoted mycelial growths but inhibited AF production, suggesting that A. flavus grown in the peptone medium is able to sense the peptone concentrations and is able to shift between fast growth and AF production. Figure 3 A. flavus grown in PMS and GMS media responded differently to the initial spore densities. (A) Higher concentrations of peptone inhibited AF productions in A. JNJ-26481585 in vivo flavus A3.2890. P4, PMS media with the initial spore density of 104 spores/ml; P6, PMS media with
the initial spore density of 106 spores/ml; G4, cultured in GMS media with the initial spore density of 104 spores/ml; G6, cultured in GMS media with the initial spore density of 106 spores/ml; P4+, PMS media with 15% peptone, cultured with the initial spore density of 104 spores/ml; P6+, PMS media with 15% peptone, cultured with the initial spore density of 106 spores/ml, St, AF standard. (B) Higher concentrations of peptone promoted mycelial growths. The total mycelium dry weights were measured after a 3-day culture, with initial spore densities of 104 or 106 spores/ml. (C) No direct correlations between AF productions and pH changes. In GMS media the pH was gradually decreased P505-15 research buy during the 55-hr culture, where a higher initial spore density led to faster acidification of the medium. In PMS media the pH was increased during culture, where a higher initial spore density led to rapid alkalization of the medium. Note that increased peptone concentrations did not cause a significant change in the pH of PMS media (P6 and P6+). It has been reported
previously Calpain that carbon sources affect the pH of culture media [14, 16]. If AF production in media correlates with the pH changes was examined during incubation. We found that, as reported by Buchanan and Lewis (1984) , the pH of cultures in GMS media was decreased (Figure 3C, G4 and G6), while pH of cultures in PMS media was increased during the 55-hr cultures (Figure 3C, P4, and P6). Higher initial spore density led to faster acidification or alkalization of the GMS and PMS media during the cultures, respectively (Figure 3C). Interestingly, we observed that when the peptone concentration was increased to 15%, the pH of the media increased in the same way as the 5% peptone media (Figure 3C, P4+ and P6+).