When the percentage of missing data is large, standard MI strateg

When the percentage of missing data is large, standard MI strategies, which do not take into account the intra-cluster correlation, underestimate the variance of the treatment NSC 23766 effect. Within-cluster

and across-cluster MI strategies (except for random-effects logistic regression MI strategy), which take the intra-cluster correlation into account, seem to be more appropriate to handle the missing outcome from CRTs. Under the same imputation strategy and percentage of missingness, the estimates of the treatment effect from GEE and RE logistic regression models are similar.”
“Background and Purpose: The vast increase in recent publications on renal mass biopsy (RMB) suggests an increased interest in the subject. The objective of the survey was to assess the use of RMB in current urologic practice, including related factors such as indications and patterns in practice.

Methods: https://www.selleckchem.com/products/elafibranor.html The link to a web-based questionnaire (www.surveymonkey.com) was sent to all registered e-mail addresses (1854) of members of the Endourological Society in December 2010. The questionnaire contained six epidemiologic questions, 10 regarding patterns of practice, one regarding the influence of the literature, and one on future techniques.

Chi-square test (for trends) was used to assess statistical significant differences among categorical answers.

Results: In total, 190 responders completed the survey of whom 73% indicated performing RMB “”never”"

or “”rarely”" compared with 9% performing RMB in 25% to 100% of cases. Thirteen percent of responders reported never to take a RMB. Of the latter, significantly fewer practice in university hospitals (6% vs 20%-30%, P = 0.003). Main indications to perform RMB are still tumors in solitary/transplant kidneys and in metastatic disease. Lack of influence on clinical management and risk of false negatives were the main reasons not to perform biopsies. Sixty-one percent prefer histological biopsies compared with 8% who prefer cytological aspiration; 31% indicated PLX-4720 molecular weight that they combine both techniques. Other tissue differentiation techniques (Optical Coherence Tomography, Raman-spectroscopy) are unknown to 65% of urologists.

Conclusion: RMB is not yet applied widely in urologic practice, with academic urologists performing RMB less infrequently. Core biopsies are still preferred, although combined with cytologic punctures by a considerable number of responders.”
“Primary lens luxation (PLL) is a well-recognized, painful and potentially blinding inherited ocular condition in dogs. We screened PLL-affected dogs of 30 different breeds, to identify those which carried a previously described c.1473+1 G>A mutation in ADAMTS17 that is associated with PLL in Miniature Bull terriers, Lancashire Heelers, and Jack Russell terriers.

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