At each visit, blood samples were obtained for laboratory measurements including HbA1c and serum fructosamine. Favorable serum levels of HbA1c and fructosamine were 3.4-6.1% and 205-285 mg/dl, respectively. Fasting pre-meals (iftar and sahur) and pre-bed blood glucose monitoring at home were carried out. The participants were educated for the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. If such signs and symptoms were present, blood glucose levels were determined. The maternal clinical characteristics consisting of age, parity, types of diabetes and insulin usage were analyzed. Maternal glycemic control was determined Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical at three different stages of Dapagliflozin cost Ramadan fasting
(pre, mid and post Ramadan). Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 12). The Chi-square test was used to analyze the rate and frequencies, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and
t test was used for the analysis of qualitative data. A P value of less than 0.05 was deemed significant. Results There were 37 women, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical who opted to fast in Ramadan during the 3-year period. The majority consisted of women with T2DM (24, 64.9%), while the rest (13, 35.1%) had GDM. All of them required insulin injections to achieve good glycemic control. The maternal demographic data consisting of maternal ages, parity, gestational age and type of insulin used showed no statistical difference Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between the T2DM and GDM groups (table 1). Table 1 Demographic characteristics of pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) The majority of T2DM women were primigravidae while that of GDM group were multiparae. Most of the women were in their second trimester during the study period. The combined regime of short and intermediate acting insulins (basal bolus regime) was the most commonly
used in both groups. The median number of days fasted was 25 days for both groups. Most of the women were able to fast for more than half of the month (>15 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical days). There was no reported hypoglycemic events in the study, PAK6 as the participants had already been advised to break the fast even before the hypoglycemic events could set in. There was no statistically significant difference between the T2DM and GDM groups in terms of glycemic control at one week before Ramadan fasting (pre-Ramadan). However, serum level of HbA1c tended to be higher in the GDM group (table 2), and serum fructosamine levels tended to be lower in T2DM group. During the second week of Ramadan (mid-Ramadan) serum levels of both HbA1c and fructosamine in both groups were lower compared to the relevant levels prior to Ramadan. Compared to onset and mid-Ramadan there was a clear reduction in the levels of serum fructosamine in both groups (T2DM and GDM) at post-Ramadan, while HbA1C tended to drop only in the GDM group.