Here we provide new direct evidence for such an effect In the pr

Here we provide new direct evidence for such an effect. In the present study we did not directly prove that the

reduction in DCs migration causes tumor metastasis into TDLNs. In addition to its immunosuppressive effect, TGF-β1 upregulates cell motility and invasiveness, as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition [19]. These effects may have also promoted lymph node metastasis in our study. Further investigation will be needed to more precisely define the role of tumor-derived TGF-β1 in tumor lymph node metastasis. Conclusions In sum, we have shown that overexpression of TGF-β1 by tumor cells promotes tumor metastasis into TDLNs, most likely by inhibiting DC migration from tumors towards TDLNs. This immunosuppressive effect would be expected to promote lymph node metastasis in patients with malignant disease. References 1. Giampieri S, Pinner S, Sahai E: Intravital imaging illuminates transforming growth factor beta signaling switches during metastasis. Cancer Res 2010, 70:3435–3439.PubMedCrossRef 2. Korpal M, Kang Y: Targeting the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in metastatic cancer. Eur J Cancer 2010, 46:1232–1240.PubMedCrossRef 3. Teicher BA: Transforming growth factor-beta and the immune response to malignant disease. Clin Cancer Res 2007, 13:6247–6251.PubMedCrossRef

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